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Full text of "The sonata, its form and meaning as exemplified in the piano sonatas by Mozart : a descriptive analysis"

THE SONATA, ITS FORM AND MEANING 

AS EXEMPLIFIED IN THE 
PIANO SONATAS BY MOZART. 




MOZART. 

Portrait drawn by Dora Stock when Mozart 

visited Dresden in 1789. Original now in the 

possession of the Bibliothek Peters. 






THE 



SONATA ITS FORM 
AND MEANING 

AS EXEMPLIFIED IN THE 

PIANO SONATAS BY MOZART 



A 

DESCRIPTIVE 
ANALYSIS 



BY F. HELENA MARKS 



WITH MCSICAL EXAMPLES 



LONDON 
WILLIAM REEVES, 83 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C.2. 

Publisher of Works on Music. 



BROUDE BROS. 

Music 
NEW YORK 




Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

from 

the Library of 

DR. ARTHUR PLETTNER 

AND 
ISA MCILWRAITH PLETTNER 




Printed by The New Temple Press, Norbury Crescent, London, S.W.16. 



PREFACE. 

IN undertaking the present work, the writer's intention originally was 
to offer to the student of musical form an analysis of the whole of 
Mozart's Pianoforte Sonatas, and to deal with the subject on lines some- 
what similar to those followed by Dr. Harding in his volume on Beet- 
hoven. 

A very little thought, however, convinced her that, though students 
would doubtless welcome such a book of reference, still, were the scope 
of the treatise thus limited, its sphere of usefulness would be somewhat 
circumscribed. 

" Mozart was gifted with an extraordinary and hitherto unsurpassed 
instinct for formal perfection, and his highest achievements lie not more 
in the tunes which have so captivated the world, than in the perfect sym- 
metry of his best works In his time these formal outlines were 

fresh enough to bear a great deal of use without losing their sweetness; 
arid Mozart used them with remarkable regularity."* The author quotes 
the above as an explanation of certain broad similarities of treatment 
which are to be found throughout Mozart's sonatas. But interwoven with 
these broad similarities there exists a variety of detail in the movements 
which is worthy of the closest, the most careful study, not only on account 
oi its diversity and its inherent beauty, but also on account of the diver- 
gent views held with respect to many of the passages by various well- 
known writers on musical form. As a teacher, the writer has found that 
in analysing the form and construction of a movement it is, whenever 
possible, of great value to the pupil to deal with a doubtful passage thus : 



* Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Grove's Dictionary. 
v 



VI MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(i) To bring to his notice the varying views held by different authori- 
ties; 

(ii) To compare these views (of which occasionally the number is 
equal to that of the authorities expressing them), and to discuss 
the arguments both for and against each of the theories ad- 
vanced. 

The course recommended demonstrates the fact that there can be no 
such thing as dogmatism on this subject, and far from tending to make 
ihe student quibble, it trains him from the beginning to adopt broad 
methods in his musical analysis. He is taught to recognise that there are 
many passages which it is impossible to define with any degree of cer- 
tainty, and that there will be found a still larger number (more especially 
in modern music) merging gradually into each other, and making it there- 
tore impossible to determine the exact starting, or exact finishing, point, 
both of these being, in some instances, equally indefinite. The subject 
presented to him in this manner, the student learns important general 
principles upon which to base his method of work when he meets with 
cases of doubt. 

He learns that he should, first of all, in every instance, endeavour to 
determine for himself the various possible aspects in which the matter 
under consideration may be viewed. It is of no moment whether the 
question at issue refers to the " form " of a movement, to the analysis of 
any particular portions of it, or (when it is not a case of merging) to the 
point at which an important division, or a special passage, may be re- 
garded as starting or finishing. In cases such as the last-named, he 
should carefully note each place at which such start y or close, can con- 
ceivably be held to occur. 

So long as he can satisfy himself that he has done all this, so long 
as he can, not only state clearly what reasons might be urged in favour 
ot each view, but also give, when possible, some indication of the relative 
value of different arguments, it is as unnecessary for him to express a 
decided opinion, as it is often absolutely impossible for him to do so. 

To offer to students a work embodying the foregoing principles has 
been the author's aim throughout, and she believes that the idea of a com- 
parative analysis as extended in scope as that offered in the present 
volume is quite new in a published work. 

To carry out her purpose she has made her collection of the opinions 
and views of well-known writers on musical form as exhaustive as prac- 
ticable, offering due acknowledgment. 



PREFACE. Vil 

The Thematic Schemes accompanying the sonatas are, for the most 
part, the result of independent analysis, but, in the few instances in which 
the writer has found that there is a preponderance of opinion not in agree- 
ment with her own views, the Schemes have been altered so as to be in 
accordance with those more generally accepted. 

In furnishing many of the minor details as to construction, etc., in 
repeatedly calling attention to particular chords, and to the different pro- 
gressions and passages in which they are found, the author's primary 
object has been to point out these features to the student who is studying 
the sonatas with the instrument. He thus very possibly makes his first 
acquaintance with some of these chords as they occur in actual use. 

In the case of the more rarely employed chords, his attention in cer- 
tain instances is also called to the conditions under which they occur : con- 
ditions to which, in the past, the particular chords in question were re- 
stricted by special rules which governed their employment and progres- 
sion.*! 

Clearly this is a most effective way of studying Harmony. 

Numerous quotations illustrative of the different points as they occur, 
have been made, with due acknowledgment, throughout the book, the 
writer hoping thereby to increase the interest and utility of the volume. 
From a like motive she has made constant use of equivalent terms to ex- 
press similar ideas. 

The author takes this opportunity of expressing her sincere thanks 
and deep appreciation to Sir W. H. Hadow, M.A., D.Mus., etc., and to 
Dr. H. H. L. Middleton, F.R.C.O., L.R.A.M., etc., for their valuable per- 
sonal help. The benefit of their views on various debatable points that 
have arisen during the preparation of the book has been invaluable. 

In the production of a text-book such as the present one the works 
of many writers have necessarily been consulted. The author gratefully 
acknowledges her indebtedness not only to the authors of these works, 
but also to their publishers, for, to the latter, in every instance, the copy- 
right of the works belongs. She sincerely thanks all for their courtesy 
?,nd kind permission to make the necessary references and quotations. In 

* The student must realise that many of the laws which governed the methods 
of the great classical composers have gradually been relaxed, till to-day freedom is 
the keynote in composition, and to future generations must belong the task of form- 
ulating the laws if any which underlie some of the works of our modern composers. 

t For the rules' and recommendations, etc., which affect the more generally em- 
ployed chord progressions of which mention is made, the student should refer to one 
of the numerous text-books on Harmony. 



Viii MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

order to give clearly, and in as concise a manner as possible, the names 
of the various books above referred to, together with those of their authors 
and publishers, the author has arranged the following bibliography. In 
it -will also be found full details of the use made of each individual work. 



F. HELENA MARKS. 



10 MATHESON ROAD, 
LONDON, W.i4. 
1921. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



The first column, in all cases, gives the page number with that of the para- 
graph, or section (marked ) of the work from which the quotation or reference is 
taken ; the second column refers to pages and paragraphs of the present work. 



The symbols *, f, etc., refer to footnotes similarly marked. 



BANISTER, HENRY C. 

"Lectures on Musical Analysis." 
Messrs. G. Sell and Sons } Ltd. 

18-19 ; 127 ; 

19 ; 42 (c) ; 

60 ; 106 (c) ; 

77 ; 48* ; 

91-92 ; 50* ; 

129 ; 107-108 (g) ; 

155; 119 (k), 151*; 

209 ; 76 (a) ; 

212 ; 67 (e) ; 

212-213 ; 108 ; 

217 ; 108 ; 

229 ; 109* ; 

23(5 ; 17 ; 

237 ; 165 (a) ; 

240 ; 110 (b) ; 

241 ; 111 ( j) : 

241-242 , 110* ; 

242 ; 123 (c) ; 

245 ; 146 (a) ; 

273; 105 (j): 

276; 30 (10, 45 (h) ; 

290; xxiiif. 

"Music." 
Messrs. G. Sell and Sons, Ltd. 

212; 161 (c), 161 J. 

BEBTENSIIAW, T. H., B.A., B.Mus. 
" Rhythm, Analysis and Musical Form.' 

Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co. 
355 925; 56 1 ; 

35(5, Kig.435 et seq. 49 (g) : 
360 938 : xxxivf ; 



360, footnote ; 

366 956; 

367 960; 
373-74 978 ; 



36t; 

43f; 

11 (d), 14f ; 

58 (a), 58*, 58. 



FISHER, HENRY, Mrs. Doc. 

" The Musical Examinee." 
Messrs. J. Curwen and Sons, Ltd. 

141 719; 115 (c) ; 

142 749 ; 115 (c) ; 
750-51; 117 (f) ; 

143 755; 35*; 
774; 57f; 
776 ; 58f ; 
777; 141; 

144 779; 142; 

784; 149 (a), 150*, 151 

791: (Table), 153 (ii, b) ; 

794; 124; 

60; 

"The Pianist's Mentor." 
Messrs. J. Cruwen and Sons, Ltd. 

116 128; 42*; 

185, par. i ; 152. 

GOETSCHIUS, PERCY, Mus.Doc., ETC. 

" The Homophonic Forms of Musical 

Composition." 
G. Schirmer(Inc.J, New York. 



95-96 
99; 
99-100 
138; 
181 
202 


58; 

99 & 99 (a) ; 

106 (e) ; 


10 (c) ; 
41 (b); 
157 (g) ; 
37 f, 104 (g); 
130 (ch- 
lOS (a). 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



" Lessons in Music Form." 
Oliver Ditson Co., Boston, Mass. 

47; 42 (b); 

95; 145*; 

103 ; 23f ; 

105 ; xix ; 

108 ; 108-109 (a) ; 

109; 36: 

110 ; 144 (b) ; 

123 ; 82 (e) ; 

138 ; 58 (a) ; 

139 ; 143 (c) ; 

140; 18*, 44*; 

141; 146 (a). 

AM?. On page 108, ( ride right-hand col- 
umn), rearrange last two lines to read 
thus: "Mor nearly allied to that of 
the ordinary rondo-form than to that 
of the song-form with two trios. The 
former" etc. 

GOODRICH, A. J. 

"Complete Musical Analysis." 
The John Church Co., Cincinnati. 

203 ; 127 ; 

224; 22 (a), 22f, 23 (b). 

GROVE, SIR GEORGE. 
"Dictionary of Music and Musicians." 

Messrs, Macmillan and Co., Ltd. 
Article, " Form," Sir Hubert Parry. 
Vol. II, p. 80; 87f; 

Article, " Minuet," Professor E. Prout. 
Vol. Ill, p. 214; xxiiij; 
Article, " Pasticcio," W. S. Rockstro. 
Vol. Ill, p. 650 ; 155-156 (a) ; 
Article, "Rondo," Frederick Corder. 
Vol. IV, p. 136 ; 131 (a) ; 
Article, " Sonata," Sir Hubert Parry. 
Vol. IV, p. 521; v; 
Article, "Variations," Sir Hubert Parry. 
Vol. V, pp. 225-26 ; xxviii-ix ; 

226-27-30 ; xxix-xxx ; 

230 ; xxx. 

HADOW, SIR W. H., M.A., D.Mts., ETC. 

" Sonata Form." 
Ifessrs. Novello and Co., Ltd. 



10 18; 

48 57; 

49 59; 

50 61; 
52 62; 



59 68; 


127; 


73 81; 


28 (f); 


74 81; 


69 "f ; 


77 83 (f ) ; 


48f; 


80 84; 


3(g); 


81 85-85 (a) ; 


148; 


81 85 (a) ; 


146 (a) 


82 86; 


3(g); 


102 100; 


53; 


104 102 (b) , 


xxxviii 


104 footnote; 


148; 


112 112; 


76*; 


115 115; 


431; 


161 135: 


221. 



HARDING, H. A., Mus.Doc. OXON. 
" Analysis of Form, as Displayed in Beet- 
hoven's Pianoforte Sonatas." 
Messrs. Novello and Co., Ltd. 
Sonata Op. 31, No. 2, 34; 152, 152*. 

JAHN, OTTO. 
"Life of Mozart." (Translation by P. 

Townsend.) 

Messrs. Novello and Co., Ltd. 
Vol. IT, p. 447 & footnote 17 ; 114 (a) ; 
449 ; 98* ; 

449-50; 100-101 (a). 

JVOECHKT., DR. LlTDWIG RlTTER VON. 

" Chroiiologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis 
samtlicher Tonwerke W. A. Mozart's." 
K. Nos. 



284; 
309; 

309, 310, 311 ; 
330,331,332; 
333; 
457; 

533 & -194 : 

Appendix EFI, No. 135 ; 
136; 



xvii ; 

81: 

2 (c),34(a); 

84f; 

xxxi ; 



33*: 

40 (i). 41 (a) : 

40* (ii) ; 

63*: 

88*; 
105 (a) ; 
114 (a) ; 
155 (a) : 
24 (a), 24*, 155-6 

(a), 163 (a). 

Page 63*. In this footnote move forward the words 
" in 1779 " so as to replace the words " in that year." 

Page 88*. In this footnotetransposethe words "in 
Vienna " so as to follow the word " appeared." 

On page 114, read K. 494 instead of K. 485. 

MACFARRE.N, SIR G. A., Mrs. Doc. 
"On the Structure of a Sonata." 
Messrs. Endall, Carte and Co., Ltd. 
page 12; xxxiv. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



MACPHERSON, STEWART, F.R.A.M. 


198 356 ; 81* 


" Form in Music." 


199 356 ; 82 (e) 


Messrs. Joseph Williams, Ltd. 


213 390; 53* 93* ; 


16-17* ; 137* 


226 411; xxxviif;' 


39 ; 140 (a) ; 
81* : xxxv (h) ; 
87-88; 37 (a)- 


230 417 150 (e) ; 
230-31 417-18 148- 
248 461; 22 '(a); 


92f; xxiVr 
* 93 ; 66* ; 


RICHTER, ERNST FRIEDRICH. 


128; 34 (a), 68*; 


"Die Grundzuge der Musikalischen 


136; 107 /f); 


Formen." 


150 ; xxxiii*. 


2g ' H5 (c) ; 


PRENTICE, RIDLEY. 


29 ; 115* : 




30-31 ; 117 (e) 


"The Musician." 


36; 115*. 


Messrs. J. Curwen and Sons, Ltd. 
Grade II. 45 ; 132 (e) ; 

80 ; 28f ; 


SHEDLOCK, J. S., B.A. 
"The Pianoforte Sonata." 


81 ; 32f ; 


Messrs. Methuen and Co., Ltd. 


88; 67 (c), 68f 
Grade III. 58; 76 f 
79 ; 58* ;' 


123-24-25 ; 105 (a) ; 
125; 98*. 


Grade IV. 14 ; 96* ; 




Grade V. 37 ; 112 (1) ; 




43; 126 (a &b), 126t. 


MUSIC. 


PROUT, E., B.A. 


"The Academic Series of Classical 


"Harmony." Messrs. Augener, Ltd. 
124 2Q5 ^Q* 


Music for the Pianoforte," edited by 
Messrs. G. A. Holmes and F. J. Kara. 


J-- rf-f: >f ^c/tJ y Ot/ , 

252 552 ; 90* ; 


Messrs. Weekes and Co. 


289 620; 157 (b). 


Easy Sonata in C major (No. 89 in this 


" Musical Form." Messrs. Augener, Ltd 


series), pages 127-28 (f), 129 (b). 


118 258; 18(d),42(b); 
174 333; 7**; 
177 333 ; 11 (d) ; 
177 334; 10 (c). 


" Sonatas for the Pianoforte." W A 
Mozart, edited by FranHin Taylor. 1 
Messrs. Augener, Ltd. 


" Applied Forms." Messrs. Augener, Ltd. 
96 153: 38*- 


Sonata XI; page 75f, 75 1 ; 
Sonata XVII; 133*. 


122-23 207-08 ; 131 (c) ; 


" Sonatas for the Pianoforte." W. A 


143 244; 48*- 


Mozart, edited by S. Lebert. Gotta Ed. 


145 250 ; 135 (d) ; 
190 335; xxxiv; 


Sonata I ; page 127 ; 
Sonata III; ,, 64 (c). 



1 Copyright of Notes with Editor). 



NOTE TO THE READER. 

In numbering the bars : 

(i) It is the -first whole bar in a movement which is numbered No. /, 
even where this is preceded by a small portion of a bar. This is in ac- 
cordance with the fact that, as regards " rhythm," the bar which contains 
the -first strong accent (i.e., the first whole bar) is always accounted the 
-first bar of the phrase* 

(ii) In passages marked to be repeated thus : 



i. 



the bar containing the second, and modified, ending is numbered with the 
same numeral as the last bar of the first ending, a small superscript a 
being attached as a means of distinction, thus : 



I. | 2. 

8 :|| 8" 



(iii) The " index " figure affixed to the larger one which indicates the 
number of a bar e.g., 4 1 denotes the particular beat to which reference 
is made. Should even more exact reference be required, the following 
symbol is employed, thus : y 2 = the latter portion of the second beat in 
bar 3. 

(iv) The "Comparative Table" of various editions of Mozart's Piano- 
forte Sonatas is placed at the commencement of the book, page 13, instead 
cf as an Appendix. See footnote *, page 41. 

*^The reader should bear in mind, however, that the method of numbering the 
bars differs with different writers. This will account for occasional apparent dis- 
crepancies. 

xii 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Preface ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... v 

Bibliography ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ix 

Note to the Reader ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xii 

Comparative Table of various Editions of Mozart's Pianoforte 

Sonatas, giving their respective Modes of Numbering ... xiii 

Table of Contents ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xv 

Introductory Chapter ... ... ... ... ... ... xvii 

Sonata No. I in C major (K. 279) ... ... ... ... i 

No. 2 in F major (K. 280) ... ... ... ... 7 

No. 3 in B flat major (K. 281) 14 

No. 4 in E flat major (K. 282) 21 

No. 5 in G major (K. 283) ... ... ... ... 27 

No. 6 in D major (K, 284) 33 

No. 7 in C major (K. 309) ... ... ... ... 40 

No. 8 in A minor (K. 310) ... ... ... ... 46 

No. 9 in D major (K. 311) ... 55 

No. 10 in C major (K. 330) 63 

No. ii in A major v {K, 331) 70 

No. 12 in F major (K. 332) ... ... ... ... 78 

No. 13 in B flat major (K. 333) 88 

Fantasia in C minor (K. 475) and Sonata No. 14 in C minor 

(K. 457)^)... 98 

Sonata No. 15 in F major (K. 533 and 494) ... ... ... 113 

No. 16 in C major (K. 545) ... ... ... ... 125 

No. 17 in B flat major (K. 570) ... ... ... 133 

No. 1 8 in D major (K. 576) ... ... ... ... 139 

No. 19 in F major (K., Appendix III, No. 135) ... 154 

,, No. 20 in B flat major (K., Appendix III, No. 136) ... 159 



ERRATA. 

Page 25 (g). Omit the words " modulating to the dominant." 

Page 92 (k). Bar 52 should read bars 81-2-82. 

Page 114. In Thematic Scheme (c) F major should read F minor. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

A SONATA is a work consisting of two, three, or four movements, 
written either as an instrumental solo, or as a duet.* Each movement 
must be of a character consistent with the first one, and this and the last 
movement are always in the same key, though not invariably in the same 
mode. 

The word sonata [Italian, suonare = to sound, or to play (music)] 
signified at first music which was to be played on an instrument as dis- 
tinct from " cantata " = music which was to be sung. Later on, how- 
ever, the use of the term became restricted, being applied only to works 
which, like the modern sonata, consisted of several movements. t These 
movements were, however, all short and usually all in the same key. 

Of these early sonatas there were three varieties, viz., the Sonata da 
Chiesa, the Sonata da Ballo and the Sonata da Camera. Hadow 
writes : + 

il If the movements were all derived from the instrumental Canzona and its 
variants, the work was known as a Sonata da Chiesa; if they were all dance tunes, 
as a Sonata da Ballo; if they were partly the one and partly the other, as a Sonata 
da Camera. Then, in course of time, the Sonata da Chiesa began to drop out of 
use, and the other two came to be known respectively as Suites and Partitas. This 
distinction was not always strictly maintained; there are many "Suites" which 
contain movements that are not in dance measure ; but so far as it exists, it repre- 
sents that of Sonata da Ballo and Sonata da Camera respectively." 

The modern sonata is so called because the ~first movement is usually 
written in what is known as sonata-form.\\ This form was originally of 
binary design. By degrees, however, through various stages of evolu- 
tionlT the design developed and expanded, the growth in the middle 



* Though virtually sonatas, the term Sonata is never applied to such works 
when written for more thaA two instruments. According to the particular number 
and combination of instruments, the work is known as a Concerto, a Symphony, Trio, 
Quartet, etc. Sonatas and all such works are termed " cyclic works." Very 
occasionally we meet with a sonata which contains five movements. 

f The invention of the sonata as a piece of several movements is attributed to 
Kuhnau (1660-1722). 

I "Sonata Form," W. H. Hadow. 

An instrumental piece written in the style of a madrigal, 

|| For this reason, the design is also known as " first-movement form.'* 

H For old sonata forms, see Table XJT. 

xvii 

it 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 






portion of the movement (i.e., the middle portion of the second Part) 
being of particular significance. For, from consisting merely of some 
slight modulatory passages following on, and more or less melodically 
connected with, the re-entry of the first theme in the key of the dominant 
(with which the second part of the movement at that stage opened) the 
passages grew and gradually became a more and more prominent feature 
in the scheme. So that when, in addition to this, the custom arose of 
omitting the immediately preceding entry of the first theme in the second- 
ary key* these passages in consequence gained still more prominence, and 
in effect this portion of the movement imperceptibly acquired an indi- 
viduality of its own. Thus a middle section to the movement was de- 
veloped, and sonata-form was transformed from a binary, into one of 
ternary, design. 

In the greater number of instances the construction of a sonata is 
based on the following plan. 

TABLE I. 



(a) 
(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



THE SONATA AS A WHOLE. 



The first movement is an " Allegro " written in sonata-form. 

The second is usually a slow movement, of song-like, expressive character, 

and in a related key.f There is great variety as to the form chosen for this 

movement, but it is probably most frequently to be met with in one or other 

of the simple ternary forms. 

If the sonata contains four movements, \ the third is usually a Minuet (or 

Scherzo) and Trio, the Minuet being generally in the same *kev as the first 

and last movements. The Trio can be either 'in the same, or "in a related, 

key. 

Occasionally the positions of the slow movement and the Minuet and Trio 
are reversed, the latter being placed between the opening Allegro and 
the slow movement. 

Whatever the number of movements, the Finale is always in the same key as 
the first movement, though occasionally with change of mode. It is very 
frequently written in one or other of the 'rondo forms, thougji also often to be 
met with in sonata-form, and sometimes in others. 



* The custom of recapitulating the first subject in the key of the tonic after the 
modulatory portion, and before the re-entry of the second subject, had already 

Such t0 ** ""* 



^r, 6 exce P t ; n of the two sonatas marked Nos. XIX and XX in this volume, which contain 

movement plan' ' m vement3 ' Mozart> * Pianoforte sonatas are all constructed on the three- 



t J ^/vnH^ 1 ^ f rmi " g \" MiDUet and Tri '" these two little movements often appear in son- 
forie Sonntn On 11 M r f?* 1 * 1 ^ 111 /, ^ g " Se f the A11 ^ r ^to and Ma-giore " in Beethoven's Piano- 
ata, Op. 14, No. 1 ; and the " Menuetto and Minore " in his Sonata, Op. 22. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xix 

The student must bear in mind that whilst the foregoing Table gives 
a general outline of the most usual construction of a sonata, there are yet 
a very large number of instances in which the plan is varied. In some 
cases, the first movement is not in sonata-form, and in a few instances 
(e.g., No. XI in A major, in this volume) no movement at all is written 
in the form. And again, the variety of detail which the genius of a great 
composer can conceive is infinite, and is manifested both in the form 
and contents of his works from the most important down to the very 
smallest. Therefore in studying the following Tables, the student must 
also realise that whilst the details set forth in them have been made as 
complete as is compatible with the scope of the present work, they must 
be regarded, in great part, as typical, and in no wise as exhaustive or in- 
variable. 

"The successive enlargement of the structural designs of musical composition is 
achieved by a process of natural growth and progressive evolution. No single form 
intrudes itself in an arbitrary or haphazard manner ; each design emerges naturally 
and inevitably out of the preceding, in response to the necessity of expansion, and 
conformably with the same constant laws of unity and variety the active agents, 
along the entire unbroken line of continuous evolution, being reproduction (Unity) 
and legitimate modification (Variety) ; or, in other words, modified repetition."* 

The following points should be noted : 

(i) That the inherent power of expansion which is so notable a char- 
acteristic of the ternary design, renders it especially adaptable to an 
infinite variety of compositions of widely differing dimensions, descrip^ 
tion, and character. On this account, therefore, it is convenient to sub- 
divide the earlier of its two important sections (the simple ternary) into 
three broadly defined stages, and to classify these stages as in the accom- 
panying table (see Table II). 

(ii) That in arranging the order in which the different forms are 
tabulated, a break has been made between the two main divisions of the 
ternary form and there have been interpolated those of 

(i) The Older-Rondo form, and (ii) the Variation-form. 
This method has been adopted because, not only are both these forms, 
older than that of the developed ternary, but also because it is essential 
to associate the newer Rondo or Rondo-Sonata form with that of the 
developed ternary on which it is partially founded. This arrangement 
would, of course, be impossible were not the older Rondo, on which the 
newer design is also partially founded, already tabulated. 



" Lessons in Music Form," by Percy Goetschius. 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 
TABLE II. 



LIST OF " FORMS " TO BE MET WITH IN MOZART'S 
PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



Simple Binary, or Two-Part Song, Form. 



The Simple Ternary Forms. 

(i) Simple Ternary, or Three-Part Song. Form, 
(ii) Minuet and Trio Form, 
(iii) Episodical Form, or " Movement with one Episode." 



The Older Rondo (containing at least five parts). 



Variation-Form. 



Developed Ternary, or Sonata-Form. 

With which must he associated its two modifications, 
(i) Modified, or Abridged, Sonata, and 
(ii) Rondo-Sonata, or Sonata-Rondo, Forms. 



BINARY FORM. 

Characteristics. 

(i) The two parts are usually small, and, in the simpler examples, 
are, as a rule, of the same, or approximately the same, length.* 

(ii) Part II frequently ends with a repetition of the -final bars of 
Part /, with modification of key so as to close in the Tonic, when Part I 
has modulated to a related key. 

TABLE ITT. 



ia)t BINARY, OR TWO-PART SONG, FORM. A : ;: B 



A. Part I = Statement. 

In a large number of instances 
Part I consists of a single sentence. 



B. Part II = Response. 

(d) Either wholly in the key of the 
tonic, or, as is more frequently the 



case, starting in the secondary key 
and modulating back to the tonic, 
(b) It may close with a full cadence in j (e) In a great many instances (more es- 
the tonic, but more frequently \ pecially in purely instrumental 

modulates, and ends with a full i music)' Part II end's with a repeti- 

cadence in a related key. (c) :|; tion of the closing portion of Part 

I. :\\ 



In the more highly developed and elaborate examples, however, Part II is 
otten considerably longer than Part I. 

^ reference to Paragraphs correspondingly marked which occur in the sub- 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xxi 

(a) For old Sonata Forms, which are also of Binary design, see 
Table XII. 

(b) When the piece is in the major mode the modulation (in old 
music) is always to the key of the dominant, and when in the minor, 
either to that of the relative major, or to the dominant minor. 

(c) Very occasionally the parts are not marked to be repeated. 

(d) It is exceptional to meet with cases, even in the simplest examples 
of this form, which contain no modulation at all. If Part I has modu- 
lated, then Part II may be wholly in the key of the tonic. But when 
Part I is wholly in the key of the tonic, there will usually be some modu- 
lation at the commencement of Part II. Notable exceptions to the above 
are, however, to be found in the Menuetto from Beethoven's Sonata in 
E flat, Op. 31, No. 3, and in the Air and Variations which form the slow 
movement of his Sonata in F minor, Op. 57, the " Appassionata." 

(e) The amount repeated varies. It may consist merely of the 
cndence bars, or it may extend to a repetition of the whole of the final 
phrase : occasionally it includes even more than the final phrase. 

TERNARY FORM. 
Characteristic. 

Whereas in binary form, whenever any return to Part I occurs at the 
end of the movement, it is always a return to its closing bars, in ternary 
form there is (i) always a return to Part I at, or towards, the close of the 
movement, and (ii) this return is invariably to the opening bars. 

This is the essential feature of any species of three-part design from 
the simple melody consisting of merely three phrases, to the most ex- 
tended, and elaborate examples of developed ternary form.* Excepting 
in the case of " Minuet and Trio " form, so long as the return to the open- 
ing bars is unmistakable, there is absolutely no rule as to the amount of 
Part I which must be reproduced in Part III. It may be merely a bar or 
two, or it may include the whole of Part I. In " Minuet and Trio " form, 
however, the whole of Part I (= the Minuet) is invariably repeated. 
There are many other instances in the various species of ternary form in 
which the latter practice is followed, but in these certain modifications, 
particularly of key, are frequently necessary. The extent of these modi- 
fications varies, but is often very considerable. 

* A certain number of movements in sonata-form (developed ternary) are to be 
met with in which, for one reason or another, the composer has omitted the whole 
of the first subject in the recapitulation. These instances must, however, be looked 
upon as exceptions. See explanatory text to Table VIII, (gj, paragraph ii, and 
footnote f . 



XX11 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 
TABLE IV. 



SIMPLE TERNARY, 


OR THREE-PART SONG, 


FORM A : : B A**:!', 


A. Part I = Assertion. 


B. Part II = Digression. 


A3. Part HI = Re-asser- 
tion. 


(a)f Sentence of eight or 
more bars, usually 
modulating to, and 
closing in, a related 
key, though sometimes 
closing with full ca- 
dence in the tonic, b: i 


Passage of more or 
less divergent charac- 
ter usually with some 
contrast in key.J This 
passage is most fre- 
quently constructed so 
as to merge gradually 
into Part III. 


Repetition of the open- 
ing theme entirely in 
the key of the tonic, 
the latter portion (if 
it originally modu- 
lated) being trans- 
posed into this key. 
(c) Subject (when neces- 




Sometimes, however, 


sary) to the above 




it ends definitely on a 


modification of key, 




cadence, or with a ca- 


Part III may be prac- 




dence followed by a 


tically an exact re- 




connecting link lead- 


petition of Part "I. 




ing into Part III. 


Far more frequently, 






however, the princi- 






pal theme recurs 






varied to a greater or 






lesser extent. 






(d) Coda optional. 



(a) With the earlier composers, when the movement was in the major 
mode modulation at this point was usually to the key of the dominant 
major; and when the movement was in the minor mode to either that of 
the dominant minor, or the relative major. Beethoven and subsequent 
composers very frequently follow the above traditional methods. At 
other times, however, they allow themselves more latitude and make their 
modulation at this point into one of the other nearly related keys. Seq, 
lor example, the "Allegro" (= the Minuet) in Beethoven's String- Quar- 
tet, Op. 1 8, No. 3, the " Trio" in Schubert's first pianoforte Sonata, Op. 42, 
and the " Menuetto " in his pianoforte Sonata, Op. 1 22, and Brahms' s 

'Waltzes, Nos. I, 6, 14 and 15. 

(b) A large proportion of the smaller movements in this form are 



* The superscript figures 2, 3 and 4, signify respectively the second, third and fourth entry of a 
particular passage or theme. 

t These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked which occur in the sub- 
sequent text. 

J For a very interesting and unusual example of this form, see the Scherzo in A major in Beet- 
hoven's pianoforte Sonata in the same key, Op. 2, No. 2. In this little movement Part II, after com- 
mencing with slight " development " of the opening figure of Part I, continues with an entirely new 
theme (Episode) written in the remote key of G sharp minor. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXlll 

written on the plan of the old Minuet and other early dance forms, in 
which each part was almost invariably marked to be repeated. In these 
cases the repetition is, as a rule, indicated by the two sets of double-bars 
with " repeat " marks, one at the close of Part I, and the second at the close 
of the movement.* At the same time, there are a large number of small 
ternary movements in which no such repetition takes place, each section of 
the movement being heard but once; and in these the double-bar is fre- 
quently omitted at the close of Part I. Moreover, in many compositions, 
especially in such as are of a lyrical character and of more extended 
scope, a definite break at the close of Part I would be altogether out of 
harmony with the character and style of the music. Various devices are 
employed in such cases to soften and modify the effect of finality in the 
closing cadence of Part I. In movements in which the melody is sup- 
ported by an accompaniment in one or more of the other parts, any undue 
feeling of break is often obviated by continuing the accompaniment un- 
interruptedly throughout the cadence bars. 

(c) The variation in the opening theme on its reappearance in Part III 
is occasionally very considerable. See, for example, the trio in Mozart's 
pianoforte Sonata in A major. An examination of this little movement 
shows that only the first bar of Part I actually recurs unaltered in Part 
III. Again the latter is often lengthened by means of cadential repeti- 
tions or by a coda. Occasionally, though less frequently, it is shorter than 
Part I. 

MINUET AND TRIO FORM. 

This name is ,a convenient, because a self-explanatory, term implying, 
as it does, a composition based on the plan of the old minuet and trio. In 
old music a first minuet (A) was almost always followed by a second 
independent little movement in contrast to it, called a triot (B), after 
which the first minuet was repeated* (A 2 ). The design, therefore, is an 
extension of the previously explained simple ternary form, each of its 
primary divisions, A, B, A 2 , itself consisting of a complete little move- 



* When either part is to be varied on repetition it is, of course, written out the 
second time in full." 

f The Trio is so called because, for the sake of further contrast, early composers 
frequently wrote the second movement for three instruments. According to Banis- 
ter, the first Minuet was originally written for two instruments only. 

| Professor Prout states that " though it was always understood that the first 
Minuet was to be repeated after the second, in Bach's time it is very rare to find the 
direction expressly given." 



XXIV 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



ment. In the majority of cases both minuet and trio are in simple ternary 
form. 

A very large number of dances and movements in dance form, as 
well as the minuet and trio, are constructed on this same plan. Stewart 
Macpherson explains that at one time the use of the above design was so 
practically universal for opera arias that the latter became known as 
" Da Capo Arias," composers very rarely taking the unnecessary trouble 
of writing out the first section a second time, but merely adding the words 
Da Capo at the end of the second section.* 

TABLE V. 



MINUET AND TRIO FORM. 



PART I. ASSERTION. 
A. Minuet. 

f(a-) Usually in Ternary 



form. 



A: 11: B A2 



PART II. CONTRAST. I PART III. RE-ASSERTION. 



B. Trio. 

Second little move-; 
ment, in contrast toj 
the first, generally also! 
in Ternary form, and, 
most frequently in a ! 
different key. 
(b) Occasionally the Trio! 
is followed by, or| 
merges into, a con- 
necting passage lead- I 
ing to the repetition! 
of the Minuet. 



A2. Repetition of Minuet. 
Often indicated by the 
words 

(c) "Minuet Da Capo." 
The whole movement 
is frequently length- 
ened by the addition 
of a Coda. 



(a) Although, in old music, minuets were sometimes written in binary 
form, they were, as stated above, usually constructed on the ternary plan, 
and, in modern works, it is very rare to meet with one in that form. 

(b) See e.g., the Trios in Schubert's Pianoforte Sonatas, Op. 53 and 
147; and the "Piu lento" (the Trio) in Chopin's Pianoforte Sonata, Op. 
35- 

(c) It is understood that the "Da Capo" minuet is to be played 
straight through once, and that no notice is to be taken of the "repeat 
marks." Occasionally we meet with a movement in which the minuet is 
more or less varied on its return after the trio. In such cases the minuet 
is, of course, written out the second time in full. 



" Form in Music," by Stewart Macpherson. 
t Those index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked which occur in the sub- 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXV 

EPISODICAL FORM. 

The chief characteristics of this form as distinguished from the 
earlier minuet and trio form out of which it so naturally grew lie : 

(i) In the gradual merging of the principal Parts one into the other, 
caused by avoiding the use of the emphatic cadences which are a char- 
acteristic of the earlier form. This is more particularly noticeable in 
that portion of the movement in which Part II approaches Part III, the 
effect of the device being manifestly twofold. For whilst it promotes 
continuity in the movement as a whole, it naturally also affects the outline, 
or plan of the individual Parts. These, more particularly the episode, are, 
in consequence, less stereotyped and formal in design than are the corres- 
ponding sections of the less developed type. 

(ii) In the frequent ornamentation, or other variation, of the principal 
theme on its recurrence in Part III. 

Many works of important length are written in this form. In these 
the different sections often assume notable proportions. 

TABLE VI. 



EPISODICAL FORM OR "MOVEMENT WITH ONE EPISODE." 


PART I. 


PART II. 


PART III. 


A. Principal Theme in 


B. (a) Episode. 


A3. Eepetition of Prin- 


the Tonic. 




cipal Theme. 


Always complete in 


New theme in new 


The repetition may be 


itself 


key, in contrast to 


complete or partial, 


Rarely less than a 


Part I. Not restricted 


and the Theme fre- 


Binary, and fre- 


as to form, and as a 


quently reappears with 


quently in Ternary 


rule merging into a 


ornamentation, o r 


form. 


link or connecting pas- 


modification of some 




sage leading to Part 


sort. 




III. 


Coda, usually. 




Very occasionally the 






Episode closes with a 






perfect cadence in its 






own key, followed by 






the connecting pas- 






sage. 





(a) An episode is an entirely new theme contrasting with the princi- 
pal theme, both in character and key which is heard once, and once only, 
during the course of a movement, or piece. 

i c 



XXVI 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



SIMPLE, OR OLDER, RONDO FORM. 

Characteristics. 

In this form there must be at least three entries of the principal sub- 
ject, or theme, with two intervening contrasting episodes.* 

In many of the early rondos of this type, however, the principal ele- 
ment of contrast consisted in the difference of key. Gradually, however, it 
became customary to introduce between the various entries of the principal 
theme really new themes, contrasting with the former in style as well as in 
key. 

TABLE VII. 



OLDER, OR SIMPLE, RONDO FORM.f 



Part i 



Part ii 



Part iii 
Part iv 
Part v 



A. Principal Theme, or Sub- 
ject, in Tonic. 

B. Episode I. 



AS. Principal Theme, or Sub- 
ject, in Tonic (second en- 
try. 

C. Episode II, sometimes 
called the "Long Epi- 
sode." 

A3. Principal Theme, or Sub- 
ject, in Tonic (third en- 
try). 

Coda. 



Very rarely smaller than a Binary, \ 
and sometimes in complete Ternary, 
form. 

Contrasting theme of secondary im- 
portance, in related key. Generally 
rather short. Sometimes in complete 
Binary, or Ternary, form, ending 
with a full cadence in its own key. 
Frequently, however, the Episode 
ends on a half -cadence, or with a link, 
or connecting passage, so as to lead 
back more smoothly to the Principal 
Theme. 

Complete or incomplete, and fre- 
quently varied. 

Second contrasting theme in another 
related key. As a rule, of greater 
length than Episode I. 
Complete, or incomplete, often with 
some further fresh variation of the 
theme. 

Often added. Sometimes the last en- 
try of the Principal Theme is cur- 
tailed and made to merge into the 
Coda. 



* Though usually restricted to two (or sometimes three) episodes, there is no 
limitation beyond the above rule, as to the possible number of episodes permissible in 
a Rondo of this type. Each of them must, however, be followed by a fresh re-entry of 
the principal theme. Some of the very early Rondos contain several episodes. 

t The plan given in this Table is that of the Rondo as it was developed in the time of Haydn and 
Mozart. 

J See, however, the Rondo forming the finale to Mozart's Pianoforte Sonata No. 16, in major. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXVll 

(a) Episodes not infrequently contain references to the principal 
theme, and the later episodes may contain references to matter which has 
already occurred in the earlier ones. Occasionally, though very rarely, 
an episode is to be met with in a different time to the remainder of the 
movement 

(b) The principal theme is frequently varied at each recurrence, and, 
in order to prevent any monotony which might ensue from its constant 
repetition, the re-entry is often only partial. This is especially the case 
in movements in which the principal theme is a long one. Another device, 
aiming at variety, is to introduce it in different keys. This method was 
often adopted by C. P. E. Bach, but is rarely to be met with in rondos of 
this type in the works of modern composers. 

(c) The episodes in a rondo are always in different keys to each other, 
and, as a rule, the second one is in stronger contrast to the principal 
theme than is the first. 

Mozart's pianoforte Rondo in A minor is one of the finest rondos of 
this type that has ever been written ; and another is the finale to Beethoven's 
Waldstein Sonata, Op. 53. 

THE VARIATION-FORM. 

In this form, the melody, usually a short and simple theme is repro- 
duced a varying number of times with some fresh ornamentation, or modi- 
fication, of the theme at each succeeding repetition. Many devices are 
employed, sometimes singly, and sometimes in combination, by which 
these variations are effected. The principal of these are : 

(i) (a) The ornamentation of the melody by the use of passing, and 
other auxiliary notes, turns, shakes, arpeggios, runs, etc., or (b) the melody 
may be more or less radically altered, whilst the original harmony is 
retained. 

(ii) The harmonisation is varied, the original melody remaining prac- 
tically the same. 

(iii) Change of mode (with very occasionally a change of key also). 

(iv) Alteration of the " time " or " tempo'' or of both together, where- 
by the character of the original theme is entirely changed, even where the 
theme itself is more or less retained. In such variations the theme some- 
times takes the form of a minuet, waltz, polonaise, fuga (see v), etc.* 

* See, for example, Beethoven's Thirty-three Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli 
(Op. 120). In this set, amongst other variations, we find a March, a Fughetta, a 
Fuga and a Minuet; and in the same composer's set of Six Variations (Op. 34), we 
find both a Minuet and a March. 



xxviii MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



Moreover, there is a further and more profoundly conceived type of varia- 
tion in which the original musical thought itself is, as it were, transformed 
and brought forward in an entirely new light. In such cases the connec- 
tion between the original theme and the variation is often only to be 
traced through the fact that the original rhythm i.e., the length of phrase 
and sentence is similar, or else merely that the general harmonic basis 
has been adhered to. 

(v) Contrapuntal treatment, either by canonic imitation, or by work- 
ing the theme as a fughetta or fugue. The latter device is often em- 
ployed for the fina.1 variation which is, as a rule, lengthened, often very 
considerably, and forms a coda. This variation whether written 
ab a fugue or otherwise is often merely based on the theme, and 
is quite free as to its construction. At other times the final section com- 
mences with a fresh variation of the theme followed, and extended, by the 
real coda which frequently contains still further fresh variations of 
phrases or figures from the theme. 

In many of his sets Mozart changes the time of his final variation as 
well as increasing the tempo.* In several of these, however, just at the 
very end of the movement, he reverts for a few bars to the original time 
and tempo, giving us, as it were, a reminiscence of the opening theme. 
This method is frequently adopted by other composers, the whole of the 
original theme being sometimes heard at the close of the -movement. 

Of Mozart's methods of writing variations Sir Hubert Parry writes : t 

" A certain similarity in the general plan of several of the independent sets 
suggests that he had a regular scheme for laying out the succession of variations. 
The earlier ones generally have the tune of the theme very prominent ; then come one 
01 two based rather more upon the harmonic framework, so as to prevent the recur- 
rence becoming wearisome ; about two-thirds of the way through, if the theme be in 
the major, there will be a minor variation, and vice versa ; then, in order to give 
weight to the conclusion and throw it into relief, the last variation but one has a 
codetta of some sort, or an unbarred cadenza, or else there is an unbarred cadenza 
dividing the last variation from the final coda, which usually takes up clearly tho 
features of the theme." 

And later, when referring to the last movement of Mozart's Piano- 
forte Sonata No. VI, in D major, and comparing the "sets of variations" 



* See, for example, the Finale of Sonata VI, in D major, and the first move- 
ment of Sonata XI, in A major. 

f The various quotations in this section are taken from the article " Varia- 
tions, ' in Grove's Dictionary. 



: 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXIX 

introduced into his sonatas and such works, with his "independent sets" 
Sir Hubert Parry continues : 

" True, the basis of the variations is for the most part melodic, but the principle 
1-4 treated with more solid effect than usual . . . This [movement] contains some 
extremely happy examples of the exclusive use of the harmonic principle, as in the 
ninth variation, in which the vigour and individuality of the figure give the varia- 
tion all the appearance of an independent piece. Similarly, in the eleventh, Adagio 
C'antabile, and in the last, in which the time is changed from to 2, the melody is 
so devised as to appear really new, and not merely the theme in an ornamental dress. 

11 An excellent use to which Mozart frequently puts variations is that of pre- 
senting the subjects of sonata-movements in new lights, or adding to their interest 
by new turns and ornaments when they reappear a second or third time in the course 
of the movement. One example is the recurrence of the theme in the ' Rondo en 
Polonaise ' which forms the middle movement in the Sonata in D just referred to. 
Another is the slow movement of the well-known Sonata in C minor, connected with 
the Fantasia in the same key." 

From the new and interesting devices which originated with Haydn 
it would appear that the variation-form made a far deeper impression on 
him than it did on Mozart. These fresh devices, in each case, added some 
variety to the form of the movement (or piece) and thus tended to lessen 
the constructional monotony consequent on the constant repetition of the 
same rhythmic outline. They were : 

(i) Sets of variations on two successive themes. 

(ii) Double variations, i.e., variations, which on repetition, were repro- 
duced with still further fresh variation in either one, or both, of the Parts. 

(iii) A set of variations in which episodes were introduced, thus 
forming a species of Rondo with variations. 

In the hands of Beethoven this " form " underwent a marvellous 
development, and some of his sets surpass all others which have ever been 
written. Of them, Sir Hubert Parry writes : 

" Beethoven's work forms an era in the history of variation-making. It was a 
branch of art eminently congenial to him; for not only did his instinct for close 
thematic development make him quick to see various ways of treating details, but 
his mind was always inclined to present the innermost core of his idea in different 
forms In principle Beethoven did not leave the line taken up by the com- 
posers of the sonata period, but he brought the old and new principles more to an 
equality than before, and was also very much more daring in presenting his model 
in entirely new lights. The proportion of purely ornamental variations in his works 
is small ; and examples in which the variations follow the theme very closely are more 
conspicuous in the early part of his life than later ; but even among such compara- 
tively early examples as the first movement of the Sonata in A flat (Op. 26), or the 
still earlier ones in the Sonata in G (Op. 14, No. 2) and the set on Righini's air, there 
is a fertility of resource and imagination, and in the last case a daring independence 

of style, which far outstrip anything previously done in the same line Th<? 

finest examples of his work of this kind belong to the last period Those in the 

Sonatas in E (Op. 109) and C minor (Op. Ill), the two in the Ninth Symphony and the 



XXX MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

thirty-three on the Waltz by Diabelli .... are the finest and most interesting in 
existence, and illustrate all manner of ways of using the form. In most cases the 
treatment of the theme is very free, and is sometimes complicated by the structure 

of the movement In Beethoven's latest productions structural and melodic 

elements are brought to a balance and made to minister in all the ways that artistic 
experience and musical feeling could suggest to the development of the ideas which 
lie in the kernel of the theme, and to the presentation of them in new lights." 

Many notable sets of variations have been written by modern com- 
posers. But, of all these composers, Brahms alone has made any sub- 
stantial advance towards the further development of this form. Of the 
latter's works, Sir Hubert Parry remarks : 

" By far the finest variations since Beethoven are fhe numerous sets by Brahms, 
who is akin to Beethoven more especially in those characteristics of intellect and 
strong emphatic character, which seem to make variations one of the most natural 
modes of expressing ideas." 



DEVELOPED TERNARY, OR SONATA, FORM. 

C haracteristic features. 

Part I the Exposition which contains two themes, or subjects, the 
first in the key of the tonic, the second in a related key, 
the two subjects being usually connected by a modu- 
lating passage the transition. 

Part II the Free Fantasia, or Development which is founded 
principally on material already heard in the Exposition. 

Part III the Recapitulationwhich repeats Part I with both sub- 
jects in the key of the tonic. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 
TABLE VIII. 



xxxi 



SONATA, SONATA-ALLEGRO, OR FIRST MOVEMENT, FORM, OR MOVE 

MENT OF CONTINUITY. 



PART I. 

Exposition. 

(a)* A. First Subject in 
Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p a s s a g e, or 
Transition, modulat- 
ing to, or towards, 
the key of the second 
subject. 

(c) B. Second Subject in 

related key. 
Generally consisting 
of two or more sec- 
tions, and frequently 
followed by a 

(d) Codetta. 

(e) :||: or :|| or || 

In modern music the 
double-bar as well as 
the repeat is also fre- 
quently omitted. 



PART II. 

Free Fantasia or Develop- 
ment. 
(Founded on A and B.) 

(f) As a general rule 
chiefly founded on fig- 
ures and phrases from 
the Exposition, 
worked thematically, 
and more or less freely 
modulating. 
N.B. M o z a r t fre- 
quently introduces an 
Episode into this sec- 
tion, occasionally to 
the entire exclusion of 
thematic develop- 
ment. 



PART III. 

Recalculation. 

(g) A2 First Subject 
Tonic. 
Bridge-passage, or 
Transition, usu- 
ally modified to 
lead to the second 
subject in the key 
of the Tonic. 
B 2 Second Subject in 

Tonic, 
(h) Coda, 

Usually added in mod- 
ern works. 



(a) The first subject is, as a rule, rather short and of well defined 
character, t It rarely modulates into keys other than those nearly related 
tc it, and most frequently ends on a full cadence, or a half -cadence, in 
the tonic. 

(b) Although a definite feature of this form, and to be met with in 
the great majority of movements, the transition is occasionally dispensed 
with. 

(c) Prior to Beethoven, the choice of key for the second subject was 
limited to those nearly related to the tonic. When the movement was in 
the major mode the second subject was almost invariably written in the 



* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked which occur in the sub- 
sequent text. 

t Hadow remarks : " As a general rule we may say that in a well-constructed 
first movement the proportion of the opening subject varies from about one-fourth 
to about one-twelfth of the exposition as a whole. Of course this law, like every 
formal rule, may occasionally be broken to secure some dramatic or poetic effect, as, 
for instance, in the second of Schumann's Strins; Quartets, but apart from this, it 
will usually be found to hold good." " Sonata Form," W. H. Hadow 



xxxii MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

key of the dominant major, and when in the minor mode it was either 
in the key of the relative major, or in that of the dominant minor. Beet- 
hoven, however, introduced many innovations as regards the key of this 
subject, a practice in which subsequent composers have advanced still 
further. Yet, in spite of this, in the greater number of instances the old 
relationship of keys between the subjects is still adhered to. 

Again, Beethoven and later composers often introduce the first sec- 
tion of the second subject in a different key to that in which the principal 
portion of the subject is heard,* the music, moreover, frequently modu- 
lating incidentally through various other keys. Under either of these 
conditions the keys in which the second subject reappears in the recapitu- 
lation usually bear the same relationship to each other as do those keys 
in which the subject originally occurs in the exposition. 

We also meet with occasional instances in which the recapitulation 
of the second subject is started in an unusually distant key. This key, 
however, rarely continues for many bars, the music then modulating back 
to the tonic, t 

(d) The final section in the exposition frequently forms what is 
known as the codetta. The purpose of the passage is to lay stress on 
this, the culminating point in the secondary key, and this stress is often 
effected by more or less emphatic repetitions of the full close in the par- 
ticular key. In the works of Beethoven and more modern composers, how- 
ever (and in one interesting exception in Mozart's pianoforte sonatas*) we 
often find the exposition closing with a link, or connecting passage, which 
leads without break both back to the repetition of the exposition itself,^ 
and on into the free fantasia. 

* A few exceptional instances of such treatment are to be met with in the works 
of Haydn, and there is one instance to be found in Mozart's pianoforte sonatas. See 
the Finale of Sonata No. 12, in F major, in which the whole of the first section of 
the second subject appears in the key of the dominant minor. The section ends with 
a Tierce de Picardie, after which the second section occurs in the normal key of the 
dominant major. 

t For a noteworthy and unusual instance of the use of remote keys, see the 
Finale of Beethoven's pianoforte Sonata in E fiat major, Op. 31, No. 3. In this 
movement the second subject appears in the exposition in B flat major, the normal 
key of the dominant. In the recapitulation, however, it reappears first in the most 
unusual key of the flat mediant major (G flat major), and this entry is followed by 
a second entry in another unusual key, viz., that of the tonic minor. There is a dif- 
ference of opinion as to the point at which the second subject of this movement com- 
mences, and therefore as to whether the passage in E flat minor is a repetition of the 
whole, or of the second section only, of the subject. 

t Sonata XIV, first movement. 

In movements where the exposition is repeated. 






INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xxxiii 

(e) In Mozart's time the exposition, as a rule, and Parts' II and III 
very frequently, were marked to be repeated. The practice of repeating 
the later portion of the movement first fell into abeyance, and gradually 
that of repeating the exposition has followed suit. In fact, Beethoven 
occasionally omits the double bar as well as the repeat at the end of the 
exposition, a practice which is frequently followed by modern composers. 

(f) With but one or two restrictions as regards key, a composer is 
practically free as to his choice of the manner in which he will work out 
this portion of the movement. And because of the all but infinite variety 
of possible methods, it is riot practicable, in the space of an introductory 
chapter, to do more than add a very few remarks on this section to those 
which appear in Table VIII. 

(i) As regards key. 

The key of the tonic and that chosen for the second subject are 
heard very prominently in the other principal divisions of the movement, 
the latter key in the exposition, and the key of the tonic in the recapitu- 
lation. On this account, therefore, neither of these keys is employed in 
the free fantasia, except in incidental modulation, and with one other 
exception as regards each key. Moreover, save in incidental modulation, 
no key is, as a rule, employed a second time. The exception referred to 
in the case of the secondary key is that not infrequently the free fan- 
tasia commences in the key in which the exposition has just closed, but 
once the key has been quitted it should not (save incidentally) be heard 
again. And, as regards the tonic, we find that in some movements the 
return to this key is made at a -point somewhat in advance of the close 
of the free fantasia. It must be noted, however, that directly the retur 
to the key of the tonic is heard, it heralds the near approach if not tl 
actual entry of the recapitulation. 

(ii) Episodical matter. 

In the works of Beethoven and of other composers since Mr 
time, we sometimes find an episode introduced into the free f- 
Where this occurs, however, it usually occupies a portion only, 
occasionally a very considerable portion, of the section.* 

(g) Save that the second subject reappears in the key of 
instead of in the related key (which generally necessitated 



* In his book, "Form in Music," Stewart Macpherso.n remarks 
not usual, the cases in which this (i.e., the introduction of an ej 
sufficiently numerous to prevent the proceeding from being rega 
ceptional." 



xxxiv MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

modification in the preceding transition*) the recapitulation in the earlier 
sonatas was frequently, to all intents and purposes, a reproduction of the 
exposition, with little, or no, further modification. On the other hand, 
however, various instances are to be met with in the works of the earlier 
composers in which considerable modification occurs, both as regards 
the amount of subject-matter repeated, and. the manner of its repetition. 
"And in modern music, the trend in both these directions has con- 
tinued. In the former direction, it tends increasingly towards a shorten- 
ing of the amount recapitulated, a result usually effected either (i) by 
omitting the repetition of a portion of some of the principal sections 
possibly of a portion of all of them; or (ii) occasionally, though far less 
frequently, by the omission of an entire subject, t or of an important sec- 
tion of it; or (iii) though very rarely, yet occasionally, by the omission 
of the transition. As regards the second point, viz., the modification, or 
variation, in the treatment of the subject-matter, it may be remarked that 
although we meet with many instances in which the first subject reap- 
pears with some modification, it is by no means of such frequent occur- 
rence as is variation in the repetition of the second subject, nor is the 
variation, as a rule, so great. In reference to the point as affecting the 
first subject, Macf arren writes : " When the subjects or the artist's skill 
ir> their development are thus exhausted, the music returns to the ori- 
ginal key of the movement, with the first subject in its original rhythmi- 
cal simplicity though perhaps with the decoration of some new figure 
of accompaniment, or occasionally with a counter-melody embroidered 
upon it." " On the Structure of a Sonata," by Sir G. A. Macf arren. 

Whereas, as affecting the second subject, Prout remarks : "Occasion- 

lly the second subject is so far altered in the recapitulation as to be 

nost a new subject, though constructed on the same lines as before." 

In movements in the minor mode, when the second subject in the ex- 

tion has been taken in the key of the relative major, in the recapitu- 

it is taken sometimes in the key of the tonic major, and sometimes 

tonic minor, % the latter method being met with more particularly 

r orks of the earlier composers. 



ionally, when the original transition has ended on a half-cadence in the 
1 it reproduced exactly in the recapitulation. 

'aw remarks : " When a whole subject is omitted from the recapitula- 
~ r because that subject has been prominently brought forward in the 
>n it would be tedious to use it'again in the recapitulation." 
VIII, first movement (j) and footnote to same, page 50. 






INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXXV 

Exceptional features in the Recapitulation. 

Instances of both the following devices, though rarely to be met with, 
are to be found in Mozart's pianoforte sonatas. 

(i) The reappearance of the first subject In the recapitulation in the 
key of the subdominant, by which a similar relationship of keys between 
the two subjects is retained as exists between them in the exposition. See 
first movement of Sonata No. XVI, in C major. 

(ii) The recapitulation of the second subject before that of the first 
subject. See first movement, Sonata IX, in D major. 

(h) The very important and often lengthy final section to the move- 
ment which we now associate with the term coda originated with Beet- 
hoven ; in fact, as Stewart Macpherson expresses it, " may almost be said 
to have been a creation of Beethoven." 

Before his time a great many sonata movements ended with a re- 
capitulation of the closing bars of the exposition, transposed, of course, 
into the tonic, with possibly a few extra chords added to emphasise the 
final cadence. 

And in those instances where composers were dissatisfied with such 
mere repetition for the close of the entire movement, and so added a short 
passage (after the repetition of the latter portion of the movement) to 
produce a more satisfactory feeling of climax, such passages were usu- 
ally of simple character, and never of very great length. 

There is absolutely no rule as regards the construction or length of 
the modern coda. 

It is usually founded on figures and phrases from the themes of the 
movement, presented in some fresh and striking manner, and possibly 
interspersed with new passages of a brilliant character. Occasionally, 
but very rarely, we find an entirely new theme introduced. Incidental 
modulation is often to be met with, and in many instances a very effective 
commencement of the coda is obtained by starting it out of the tonic and 
letting the music modulate back to that key. 

See, for example, the first movements of Beethoven's Pianoforte Son- 
atas, No. 4, in E flat major, Op. 7, and the Waldstein, Op. 53. 

MODIFIED, OR ABRIDGED, SONATA FORM. 

This form is briefly, yet fully, described as a sonata r/fiovement with 
the Free Fantasia omitted. 



XXXVI 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



TABLE IX. 



(a) MODIFIED, OR ABRIDGED, SONATA-FORM. 


Exposition. 

A First Subject in 
Tonic. 
Bridge-passage, or 
transition, 
(b) B. Second Subject in 
related key. 
(c) See below. 


(d) Xo Middle Section. 


(e) lie capitulation. 

A2 First Subject in Tonic. 
B r i d g e-passage, or 
Transition. 

B2 Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
Coda, optional, but 
very frequently added. 



(a) This form is most frequently to be met with in the slow move- 
ments of sonatas, etc., but it is also often employed in Opera-overtures. 

(b) In slow movements in this form, the second subject usually con- 
sists of one section only. 

(c) The exposition in modified sonata-form is never repeated, nor is 
the double-bar used at the close of this portion. 

(d) A short link, however, sometimes consisting 1 of a single chord, 
sometimes extending to a few bars in length, is interpolated here and 
modulates from the exposition to the recapitulation. 

(e) When this form is employed for slow movements the subjects, 
more particularly the first, usually reappear, ornamented, or in some way 

( varied. 

\ RONDO-SONATA FORM. 

\ C har act eristics. 

\ The Rondo-Sonata, Sonata-Rondo, Grand, or Modern Rondo, by all 
of which names this design is known, is a form in which are combined 
certain distinctive features which are severally characteristic of the two 
individual forms, the older rondo, and the developed ternary, or sonata, 
forms. 

The connection with the former is shown by the three, and sometimes 
four, Entries of the principal subject, separated by intervening matter 
of a contrasting nature, whilst the differences are apparent (i) in certain 
inherent Characteristics, in those very traits, in fact, which are derived from 
the other \source of its dual origin; (ii) in the fact that the first episode, 
which mujt appear in a related key, reappears towards the end of the 
movement tw the key of the tonic. This second entry thereby transforms 
the theme frbm an episode* (a feature of rondo-form) into a second sub- 
ject (a feature^ of sonata-form). 

* See (a) to Table VlT 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



XXXVll 



On the other hand, whilst the second entry of the second theme and 
the more artistic construction of the movement as a whole due, in great 
part, to the regular introduction of more or less important transitional 
passages are characteristic of the sonata-form, the rondo-sonata differs 
from the latter in that : 

(i) The exposition, instead of coming to an end in a related key, and 
with the close of the second subject, returns to the principal subject and 
terminates with a re-entry of the latter in the key of the tonic. 

(ii) Part II, instead of being developed from the figures and themes 
already heard in the exposition, consists of an entirely new episode (or 
third subject, as it is sometimes called) in another new key. 

TABLE X. 



*(a) RONDO-SONATA, SONATA-RONDO, GRAND, OR MODERN RONDO, 


FORM. 


PART I. 


PART II. 


PART III. 


Exposition. 


C. Episode. 


Recapitulation. 


(b) A. Principal Subject in 


(e) (Often called the third 


A 3 . Principal Subject in 


Tonic. 


subject). 


Tonio (third entry), 


Bridge-passage, or 
Transition. 


In another related 
key, and always mod- 


complete or incom- 
plete, and frequently 




ulating so as to end on 


with further variation 




dominant harmony in 


B r i d g e-passage, or 




tonic key. 


Transition. 


(c) B. Second Subject in 




B 2 . Second Subject in 


related key. 




Tonic. 


(d) A2. Principal Subject 




A*, (i) Fourth entry of 


in Tonic (second 




Principal Su b- 


entry) almost al- 


N.B. T h i s section 


ject, or, more 


w a y s complete, 
and frequently 


often contains some 
development of previ- 


frequently, 
(ii) Fourth entry (usu- 


varied. 


ous subject-matter. 
Occasionally, though 


ally incomplete) 
followed by Coda, 




very rarely, such de- 


or 




velopment entirely 


(iii) Coda, chiefly 




takes the place of the 


founded on the 




episode. f 


Principal S u b- 






ject. 






Occasionally, though 




4 


very rarely, the Coda 






contains a fourth 






complete entry of 






this subject. 



* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked which occur in the sub- 
sequent text. 

t This remark refers specially to pianoforte music. The form is frequently used in symphonies, 
quartets, etc., and Prout points out that " in the majority of instances it will 'be found that in such 



xxxviii MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(a) This form of rondo, when used in sonatas, symphonies, etc., is, 
as a rule, only employed for the finale, and not for a first, or for a middle, 
movement. For an interesting exception, however, see the slow move- 
ment in Schumann's String Quintet, Op. 44. 

(b) The principal subject in a rondo-sonata is usually of simple char- 
acter both as regards rhythm and melody. Both subjects (though more 
particularly the first) are characteristically simpler in these respects than 
are those usually to be met with in sonata-form. Moreover, in a 
rondo-sonata,, the fiist subject is always more important than the second; 
the latter is shorter than is the corresponding subject in a sonata, and 
seldom contains more than two sections, frequently only one. 

(c) In a movement in the major mode the second subject is always 
taken in the key of the dominant major, and in a movement in the minor 
mode in that of the relative major.'* 

(d) The second entry of the principal subject, which is usually com- 
plete, causes a partial repetition of the exposition. In a rondo-sonata the 
whole of the exposition is never repeated. 

(e) " The episodical part of a rondo, however indeterminate, is usually 
more settled both in shape and key system than the free fantasia of a 
ternary movement. It is, so to speak, more concrete and less thematic." 
W. H. HADOW. 



f the movement m stly consists of 

* See footnote *, page 53. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 
TABLE XI. 



xxxix 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF FORMS. 



OLDER RONDO. 



A. Principal Theme in 
Tonic. 

B. Episode I in related 
key. 

A. 2 Principal Theme in 
Tonic. 



C. Episode II. 

In another related 
key. 



A.3. Principal Theme in 
Tonic. 

{Occasionally contin-' 
uing 
D Episode III. 
A4 Principal Theme 
Tonic. 
Coda (sometimes). 



SONATA. 



RONDO-SONATA. 



Exposition. 

A. First Subject inJA. Principal Subject in 
Tonic. 

Transition. 

B. Second Subject in re- 
lated key. 



N. B. Exposition 

ends in related key. 
Free Fantasia. 
(Founded on A. and B.^ 
Passing through vari- 
ous fresh keys. 
Occasionally contains 
an Episode.* 



Tonic. 
Transition. 

B. Second Subject in re- 
lated key. 

A2. Principal Subject in 
Tonic. 

N.B. Exposition 

ends in Tonic. 

C. Episode. 

In another related 

key. 

(See Table X, Part II, 

N.B) 



Eecapitulation. 

A 2 . First Subject in A 3 . Principal Subject in 
Tonic. Tonic. 

Transition. Transition. 

B 2 . Second Subject in 
B 2 . Second Subject in Tonic. 

Tonic. A*. Principal Subject in 

Tonic, or (or and) 

Coda (usually) Tonic. Coda founded on 

same. 



* See first movement of Mozart's Pianoforte Sonata in F major, No. 12, and the Finale in Beet- 
hoven's Pianoforte Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1. 



xl 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



TABLE XII. 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF FORMS. 


OLD SONATA FORMS. 


MODIFIED SONATA FORM. 


Part I. 


Part I. 


Exposition. 


*A , First Melody in Tonic, 


A First Melody in 


A i First Subject in 


modulating to 


Tonic, modulating toi Tonic. 




Transition. 


B 2 Second Melody in 


B 2 Second Melody in 


B 2 Second Subject in re- 


Dominant.f 


Dominant, f 


lated key. 


:||: Double bar and re- 


:||: Double bar and re- 


No double bar. 


peat. 


peat. 








Middle section 






omitted. 


Part II. 


Part II. 


Recapitulation. 


A 2 First Melody in Dom- 


A- a - First Melody in Dom- 


A x First Subject in 


inant, modulating to 


inant. 


Tonic. 


B j Second Melody in 


Modulating passage 


Transition. 


Tonic. 


founded 011 previous 




:|| Double bar and re- 


figures. 




peat. 


A First Melody in 


B Second Subject in 




Tonic. 


Tonic. 




Bj Second Melody in 


Coda frequently. 




Tonic. 






:|| Double bar and re- 


II Double bar. 




peat. 



The Fugue, the oldest of the more important musical forms, was not 
employed by Mozart in any of his pianoforte sonatas. 



Sonata 



* The employment of subscript figures as symbols of key is borrowed from Hadow's work, " 
Form." The figure 1 represents the tonic key, thcfigure 2 the secondary key. 

t When the movement was in the major mode the modulation was always to the key of the domin- 
ant ; when the movement was in the minor mode to that of the relative major, or the dominant minor. 



SONATA No. I, IN C MAJOR (K. 279), (1777). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



A llegvo 



_y ^.g t 







- 



In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT" ALLEGRO," in C MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(a;* First Subject in 
Tonic, 
(b) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition, 
(c) Alternative Analysis. 
/First Subject 1-161. '\ 
t No Bridge-passage. / 
'(d) Second Subject in A 
minor and in G major 
(Dominant). 

(e) /First f 163-311. ) 
jjf) I Second 31-1-38. / 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-51 
5-1-161 

163-38 


(g) Bars 39-57. 


First Subject in Tonic 
( unaltered) . 
(h) Bridge-passage (short- 
ened and modified). 

Second Subject 
(lengthened) in D 
minor and C major 
(Tonic), 
(j) f First 70-921. j 
(k) [Second 92-1-100. j 


58-621 
62-1-69 

70-100 



SECOND MOVEMENT "ANDANTE," IN F MAJOR (KEY OF THE SUBDOMINANT). 

(a) SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 

43-46 
46-3-50 

51-681 

682-74 


(b) First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition, 
(d) Second Subject in C 
major (Dominant), 
(e) Codetta. 

(f) Double bar and repeat. 


To 61 

62-10 

11-261 
26-1-28 


(g) Bars 28-3-42. 


(h) First Subject in Tonic 
(incomplete), 
(j) Bridge-passage (new). 

Second Subject in 
Tonic (slightly length- 
ened). 
(k) Coda. 



THIRD MOVEMENT" ALLEGRO," IN C MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(a) First Subject in Tonic, 
(b) Bridge-passage or 
Transition, 
(c) Second Subject in G 
major (Dominant), 
(d) ( First 22-2-381. 1 
(e) I Second 382-561. / 
Double bar and repeat. 


To 101 
10-2-221 
22-2-561 


(f) 56-2-86. 


(g) First Subject in Tonic, 
(h) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition. 
Second Subject in 
Tonic (lengthened) . 

(j) , First (exactly x 
transposed) 108-2 
J 1241. 
Second length- 1 
1 ened 1242-158. ; 


86-2-961 
96-2-1081 
108-2-158 



* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked which occur in the subsequent 
it. 
t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



2 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is very short. It consists of two three-bar 
phrases which overlap; the second phrase is a repetition of the first. 

(b) With the exception of an occasional passing touch into other 
keys, this passage is entirely in the key of C major, in which it ends on a 
half -cadence, bar 16. 

N.B. There is a difference of opinion as to whether or not Mozart 
always intended a separate and distinct passage for the transition in his 
movements in sonata-form. Some authorities consider that he did, and 
that therefore, in movements where such a passage is not very clearly in- 
dicated, an attempt should always be made to establish one : where pos- 
sible, some previous cadence in the tonic, either a full or a half, cadence 
that can consistently be so called should be considered as the end of 
the first subject (see Thematic Scheme, a, b) and the bars from that point 
to the second subject should be regarded as the transition. 

On the other hand, a good many maintain, not only that a first sub- 
ject must at least be eight bars in length, but that where it ends on a half- 
cadence in the key of the tonic, such necessity for a separate and dis- 
tinct passage of transition is obviated [see Thematic Scheme (c)]. In this 
sonata, however, a comparison with the corresponding portion in the re- 
capitulation (bars 58-69) which modulates to the key of F major immedi- 
ately after the perfect cadence in C major, marked in (a) as the end of 
the first subject, gives weight to the view first expressed above. [See 
Thematic Scheme (a), (b).] 

(c) Alternative analysis. No transition, but the first subject con- 
tinues to the half -cadence in the tonic, bar i6\ and leads directly into 
the second subject. 

In this case, this subject would come under the third of the three 
heads under which Hadow, in point of style and phraseology, classifies 
the first subject. Those ranged under this head, he describes as con- 
sisting of " a set of two or more sectional passages in which rhythmic 
phrases and short melodic stanzas are combined."* 

(d) The second subject starts in an unusual key; it is divided into 
two sections. 

(e) The first section opens with a two-bar phrase in A minor (the re- 
lative); this phrase is immediately repeated one degree lower in G major 
the usual key of the dominant in which key the subject continues to 
the close. Bars 22-24! form a descending sequential passage repeated 

* "Sonata Form," by W. H. Hadow. 



SONATA NO. I. 3 

modified in 24-25 ; the whole section is, in fact, lengthened by numerous 
repetitions; it ends on a perfect cadence, bar 3I 1 . 

(f) The second section consists entirely of cadential repetitions and 
extensions. 

(g) The free fantasia starts in G minor with a passage founded on 
the opening bar of the first subject in combination with the semiquaver 
figure found in the second section of the second subject, it passes from 
G minor, through the keys of D minor, and C major, to A minor to the 
latter, through the chord of the Neapolitan sixth, bar 44. Bars 45~47 3 
form a short modulating sequence, probably suggested by the descending 
scale figures, bars 22-23, an d passing through the keys of A minor and 
G minor to F major. At each repetition of the semiquaver figures the 
parts are inverted. Bars 48-51 are reminiscent of the transition, and 
are followed by a short passage on G (dominant of C major), worked on 
a variation of the figures from the opening bar of the first subject, and 
ending with a scale passage which leads into the recapitulation of this 
subject, bar 58. 

Hadow draws attention to two facts to which he thinks attributable (at least in 
part) the more simple character of the free fantasia in sonata-form movements by 
Haydn and Mozart, as contrasted with those by Beethoven and later composers. 
These are : 

(i) That with the former writers both subjects are usually melodic, and that a 
melodic stanza is, on the whole, less suited to thematic treatment than a phrase 
which relies, not upon its curve, but upon its rhythm. 

(ii) That this portion of the work being still in its infancy the keys employed by 
Haydn and Mozart are neither numerous nor remote. 

(h) The transition reappears modified, and shortened by the omis- 
sion of part of the original passage. 

(j) The first section of the second subject is much lengthened. It 
should be noted : 

(i) That the first phrase is in D minor, which corresponds to the key 
of C major (the tonic) as, in the exposition, A minor corresponds to the 
key of G major (the dominant); 

(ii) That the phrase commences with reversed accents (compare with 
bar i6 3 ' 4 ), but, that by the interpolation of an extra half -bar, it ends with 
the accents in their original positions ; 

(iii) That this extra half -bar has an exactly opposite effect on the 
repetition of the phrase which immediately follows; the repetition com- 
mencing with the accents as originally written and ending with them 
again reversed. 



4 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

Naturally the foregoing transposition of the accents also affects the 
following phrase, 74 4 -;8 3 , causing it also to reappear with accents re- 
versed. 

One other point to be noticed is that the additional passage (bars 82- 
86 1 ), which is here introduced into the second subject, is founded on the 
bars of the original transition which have just been omitted in the re- 
capitulation of that passage the last part being an exact repetition. 

(k) The second section is slightly lengthened at the end to emphasise 
the final cadence. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) It is somewhat unusual in sonatas for the slow movement to be 
written in unabridged sonata-form, and still more so, as in this instance, 
for all the movements to be in the same form. (See, however, No. 5, in G 
major. Sonatas VIII, XIII and XV also contain slow movements in 
this form.) 

(b) The first subject is a sentence of six bars, consisting of three two- 
bar phrases. In the treble it ends on the first beat of bar 6, the harmony, 
however, carrying it on till the second beat in the bass. 

(c) The transition passes transiently through B flat major to C major, 
in which key it ends on an inverted cadence. 

(d) The second subject commences with a motive repeated three times 
to an accompaniment which, each time varying slightly, forms a sequence 
in the upper of the two parts. By the elision of a bar in the responsive 
phrase, the sentence is first contracted to seven bars ; it is then extended 
to sixteen bars by a lengthened and varied repetition of the same phrase. 
The inversion of the parts between bars 14 and 17 should be noted. 

(e) But for the fact that, at the end of the movement, the coda separ- 
ates these three bars from the second subject, it would be hardly neces- 
sary here to consider them apart as a codetta. 

(f) Note the double bar and repeat marks. As a general rule, in the 
comparatively few instances in which unabridged sonata-form is em- 
ployed in slow movements, the exposition is not repeated nor even fol- 
lowed by a double bar. 

It is therefore the more interesting to note that in the various slow 
movements in his pianoforte sonatas written in this form (opinions differ 
as to whether they are five or seven in number), Mozart has each time 
closed the exposition with both double-bar and repeat marks. 

(See Sonata II, slow movement, d ; Sonata III, footnote t to Thematic 
Scheme; and slow movements in Sonatas V, VIII, XIII and XV.) 



SONATA NO. I. 5 

(g) Part II is founded chiefly on the first subject. It starts in the 
key of C major, and, passing through D minor and G minor, ends on 
the dominant seventh of F major (bar 41), followed by a link which leads 
into the recapitulation of the first subject. 

(h) There is only a partial reappearance of the first subject. 

(j) In all but the last bar this short passage is quite distinct from 
the original transition. It starts by repeating the last figure of the frag- 
ment of the first subject; and its second and third bars are derived from 
the last bars of the second subject. 

(k) The coda consists of (i) the repetition of the original transition, 
modified slightly, in bar 71, to lead to (11) the reappearance of the codetta, 
now, of course, in the key of the tonic. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

The generally contrapuntal character of this movement should be 
noted. 

(a) The first subject is a sentence of ten bars and consists of two 
phrases. The first phrase ends bar 4, the second, commencing an octave 
lower, with a repetition of the opening bars, is lengthened to six bars. 

(b) The transition modulates to G major (the key of the dominant), 
bar 14, in which it ends on a half -cadence, bar 22. 

(c) It is interesting to note that the opening motive of the second 
subject is also founded on the skip of a perfect fourth; compare with 
the opening of the first subject. * 

Furthermore in Mozart's and Haydn's works the second subject was sometimes 
made to commence with the same melody as the first subject transposed, of course, 
into the key of the dominant. This was a survival from the old binary form. It 
affected, however, only the first section of the second subject and by Beethoven's time 
had become obsolete (see Sonata XVIII, in D major, first movement). 

(d) The first section, sixteen bars in length, commences with a de- 
scending sequence formed by the opening two bars being twice imitated 
each time at the interval of a third below the previous entry. Bars 
34-36 also form a descending tcnal sequence. 

(e) The second section consists almost entirely of modified repeti- 
tions of its first two bars, 38 2 -4O 1 . In bars 44-46 the semiquaver move- 
ment is transferred to the treble and the melody is formed by the first 
and fourth notes of each group and in bars 48-49 and 52-53 by the 
second and fourth notes. 

(f) The free fantasia commences with a repetition of the sequence 
of six bars with a slightly modified accompaniment from the opening 



6 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

of the second subject. It incidentally touches the keys of D major and 
B minor, and passes through C major to A minor, in which key and over- 
lapping (bar 62) the sequence is repeated, with inversion of the parts; 
the repetition also touches the key of C major. Bars 72-76 form a short 
passage on the dominant E, approached through the chord of the German 
sixth, bar 69 (repeated bar 71). The remainder of this section is 
worked on the opening motive of the first subject taken alternately 
in the treble and bass, and passes from the key of E minor through D 
minor to C major (the tonic). The section actually ends with the open- 
ing figure of the first subject in the key of the tonic, which figure is im- 
mediately repeated an octave higher in the next two bars as the com- 
mencement of the recapitulation. 

Note (i) that in bars 79-80 and 83-84, in which the motive is trans- 
ferred to the bass both the figure and the accompaniment are varied ; and 
(ii) that bars 81-84 (one note excepted) form a real sequence to 77-80. 

(g) In bars 91-93 the parts are inverted, otherwise the first subject 
reappears practically unaltered. 

(h) The transition starts in F major and modulates to C major, cor- 
responding to the keys of the original passage, which starts in C major 
and modulates to G major. 

(j) The second section of the second subject reappears transposed 
into the key of the tonic and considerably lengthened by the interpola- 
tion midway (bars 132-147) of a portion of the first section. In bar 135, 
a variation of the sequence, with which the second subject opens, com- 
mences, but reduced from six bars to four. 

Following immediately and overlapping (bar 139) there is a repeti- 
tion of the same sequence in full, with the parts inverted, and the bass 
reinforced by octaves (compare also with bars 62-68); the interpolated 
passage ends with a full cadence in the tonic, bar 147. 

There is no coda, but two extra chords are added at the close of the 
movement to emphasise the final cadence. 



SONATA No. II, IN F MAJOR (K. 280), (i;;;). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Allegro assai 



J 







In- 



movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT ' 
EXPOSITION. 


' ALLEGl 
Bars. 


IO ASSAI," IN F MAJOR. SONATA FOR 
FREE FANTASIA. || RECAPITULATION. 


M. 
Bars. 


(a)* First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition, 
(c) Second Subject in C 
major (Dominant), 
(d) f First f 27-43. \ 
(e) 1 Second 43-2-541. J 
(f) Codetta, 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-131 

13-1-26 
27-541 

54-56 


(g) Bars 57-82. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered), 
(h) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition. 
Second Subject in Tonic 
(lengthened), 
(j) f First 109-131. \ 
\Second 131-2-1421. J 
(k) Codetta. 
(1) Double bar and repeat. 


83-951 
95-1-108 
109-1421 

142-144 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ADAGIO," IN (a^ F MINOR rTHE TONIC MINOR), (b) MODI- 
FIED SONATA FORM. 



(c) EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 




(f) RECAPITUIATION. 


Bars. 


First Subject in Tonic. 
No Bridge-passage. 

Second Subject in A 
flat major (relative). 
Codetta, 
(d) Double bar and repeat. 


1-8 

9-211 
21-1-24 


(e) Link (or De- 
velopment ). 

Bars 25-32. 


First Subject in C 
m i n o r (Dominant 
minor) and F minor 
(Tonic), 
(g) Second Subject in Tonic 
(slightly lengthened). 
Codetta in Tonic. 


33-42 

43-571 
57-1-60 



Part I. 



Part U. 



(h) **ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS. BINARY FORM. 

First sentence (F minor) 8 bars. 

Second sentence (A flat major) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 ,, 

Double bar and reneat. 



Intermediate sentence 

Modified repetition of first sentence (C minor and F minor) 
Modified repetition of second sentence (F minor) 



8 

10 
18 



Those index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 
text. 

t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 

** See " Musical Form," E. Prout. in which he refers to this nmvement as " a very interesting specimen 
of simple binary form," cf., Sonata IV, second movement, c. page 24. 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT "PR 
EXPOSITION. ' Bars. 1 


ESTO," IN F MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 
FREE FANTASIA, i RECAPITULATION. Bars. 


(a) First Subject in Tonic. To 16 

(b) Bridge-p a s s a g e or I 
Transition. 1737 
(c) Second Subject in G 
major (Dominant). ! 38-661 

(d) Codetta. | 62-771 

v 

Double bnr and repeat.! 


(e) Bars 78-106. 


First Subject in Tonic; 
(unaltered). j 1073-123 
(f) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition (1 e n g t h- 
ened). ! 124-148 
Second Subject (in ' 
Tonic). 149-1771 
(g) Codetta. 1772-190 
(h) Double bar and repeat.! 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject commences with a six-bar phrase, the extension 
being caused by sequential imitation over a short tonic pedal. The re- 
sponsive phrase appears twice, the first time as a three-bar phrase short- 
ened by the omission of the final chord of the cadence. On the repeti- 
tion of the phrase, however, the final chord is added, and the subject 
ends on a full cadence in the tonic, bar I3 1 . 

(b) The transition is written entirely in triplets, and ends on a half- 
cadence in F major (tonic). Bars 18-22 form a sequence on a chromatic- 
ally descending bass. 

(c) The second subject in C major is divided into two sections, each 
ending on a perfect cadence. 

(d) It should be noted that the second subject opens in the bass, and, 
like the first subject, with an arpeggio, which, however, is now taken by 
inverse movement. 

Ihe first phrase of the first section consists of four bars on tonic and 
dominant harmonies, the former predominating, and ends with a half- 
cadence, bar 30. This phrase is repeated, bars 31-34, with the harmonies 
in reversed positions, and ends with a full cadence: Bars 35-39 form a 
sequence on a chromatically rising bass. The triplet figures in the treble 
are derived from those in the transition. The greater part, viz., four 
bars, of this sequence is real. 

(e) The second section starts with a new figure in semiquavers, which 
figure is repeated sequentially, bars 43-4 5. The first phrase ends with a 
perfect cadence, bar 48. Bars 48-54! form a lengthened and slightly 
varied repetition of 43-48. 

(f) The codetta is founded on the opening figure of the second sub- 
ject, taken with partial diminution. 



SONATA NO. II. 9 

(g) The free fantasia alludes to the transition and to the second 
subject, bars 80-82 alone referring to a little figure from the first subject. 
It opens in the key of C major with a passage founded on the triplet 
figure from the transition (bar 23) in combination with a new figure in 
the treble, of which latter there is some slight development in the fol- 
lowing bars. In bar 64, the music modulates to D minor, and starting in 
this key in bar 67, there follows a modulating sequence formed by the 
opening bars of the second subject, which are taken successively on the 
chords of D minor, G minor, C major (as the dominant of F major) and 
on F major. 

The music now returns to the key of D minor, and reverts definitely 
to F major (the key of the tonic) in the last bar of the section only* (82). 
The slurred two-crotchet figure (bars 75-77) are taken from a similar two- 
quaver figure, bar 40. By an implied enharmonic modulation (bar 81) 
the chord of D minor IIg h is quitted as F major II^ 93 

(h) With the exception of bars ioo 3 -ic>3 the second transition is an 
exact repetition of the original passage. 

(j) The second subject reappears transposed almost literally into the 
key of the tonic, but lengthened in the first section by the interpolation 
of six bars (117-122). In these the opening figure of the subject is taken 
in alternate bars in exact and in modified form the former in the bass, 
the latter transferred to the treble accompanied each time by a varia- 
tion of the semiquaver figure from the second bar of the subject. The 
whole passage forms a descending sequence which, however, alters in the 
last two bars. 

(k) There is no coda, the movement ends with a repetition of the 
codetta transposed into the key of the tonic. 

(1) In his pianoforte sonatas Mozart very frequently marks the 
second, as well as the first, part of his sonata allegro movements to be 
repeated. This custom, which is now practically obsolete, was almost 
invariable in the older sonata-forms from which the newer design was 
gradually evolved. Its ultimate origin is traceable even further back to 
the still more ancient dance-forms. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) This is the only pianoforte sonata by Mozart in which the slow 
movement is written in the key of the tonic minor. 

* cf. last movement. See also Sonata IV, third movement, and Sonata V. slow 
movement. 



I0 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(b) The movement here tabulated as in modified sonata-form is vari- 
ously described by different authorities, viz., as in : 

(i) Modified (or abridged) sonata form; 

(ii) Unabridged sonata form; and 

(iii) Simple binary form. 

According to the last-named view, therefore, it is divided into two, 
instead of into three, parts. 

The very fact that the form of this little movement can be variously analysed by 
different authorities makes the study of its construction of the greater value to stu- 
dents. They should carefully weigh the pros and cons with reference to each of the 
above analyses, noting the remarks made in Sonata IV, second movement (c). A 
comparison of the construction of the movement with that of the Minuet in A major. 
Sonata XI, will also be found to be both interesting and instructive. 

(c) The exposition (= Part I) consists of the first subject, a sentence 
of eight bars in F minor, followed immediately by the second subject,, 
a sentence of just over twelve bars (to 2I 1 ) in A flat major, to which a 
short codetta is added, founded on the opening figure of the movement. 

The first subject unquestionably divides into two four-bar phrases, 
the first ending on an interrupted, the second on a full, cadence. It is on 
the construction of the second subject, bars 9-2 1 1 , that the second differ- 
ence of opinion as to this little movement arises, a difference which, though 
on a point of lesser importance, is so radical that we feel no further 
justification is needed for our dwelling on it at some length for the 
student's consideration, nor for the very full quotations we make. 

(i) Prout divides the sentence into two phrases, he remarks : 

* In spit? of its irregular length, its rhythmical analysis offers not the slightest 
difficulty, if we bear in mind our guiding rule that the bars in which the cadences, 
are found are the accented bars, and that the most decided cadences indicate the 
fourth and eighth bars of a sentence. \Ve see that the fore-phrase is of the regular 
length of four bars and that the half-cadence with which it concludes is repeated, 
4a, two bars later (4a = bar 14). At 5a ( = 16) we see the interpolation of an 
unaccepted bar ; it is quite clear that we should be wrong to consider this bar as the 
sixth and the next one as the seventh, because the harmony shows the latter to be 
an accented bar as compared with the former. Three bars later ( = bar 19) the 
interrupted cadence changes the eighth bar to a sixth, and the full cadence in A 
flat (bar 21) is the true eighth bar. 

(ii) On the other hand, Percy Goetschius divides the sentence into 
three phrases, thus : 

Bars 9-12; 13-16; and 17-21; and remarks: 

f It is evident that this series cannot be reduced to two phrases and be thus, 
demonstrated as an extended " period " of some kind, for each of the three phrases 
is an independent melodic factor of the collective sentence, though perfect organic 
cohesion is maintained (chiefly through the uniform accompaniment). 

*" Musical Form." E. Prout. i " Homophonic Forms." Percy Goetschius. 



SONATA NO. II. II 

Thus we find that bar 16, which Prout has just clearly demonstrated 
to us cannot be the cadence bar of a subordinate two-bar section but is 
an interpolated unaccented bar, is, according to Percy Goetschius, the 
cadence bar of a 4~bar phrase, and vice versa. 

The various instances of imitation between the parts should be noted 
in the first subject, the chord of the German sixth in bar 13 (and in 47), 
and the first inversion of the chord of the supertonic minor ninth, in bar 1 5. 

(d) The exposition ends with double bar and repeat, a fact to which 
Prout refers as clearly marking the form of the movement as binary. 

In whichever form Bertenshaw considers it to be written, he cer- 
tainly is not of the opinion that the movement is in modified sonata- 
form, for he remarks that " in slow movements in this form, the double 
bar and repeat marks are never used at the end of the exposition."* 
Cf. Sonata I, slow movement, f. 

(e) Part II consists of a passage of eight bars, starting in the key of 
A flat major, and of which the opening bar alone bears any reference to 
Part I. It modulates to the key of B flat minor, bar 26, and ends on a 
half -cadence on G the dominant of C minor in which key the return 
to the first subject is made. 

Whether this passage is simply a link or is of sufficient importance to 
be regarded as a section of development is the point which determines 
whether the form of the movement is to be considered as in abridged, or 
unabridged sonata-form, a point on which authorities differ. 

According to the third alternative (see Thematic Scheme h) the 
passage in question is considered as an intermediate sentence leading to 
the repetition of Part I. 

(f) At its return the opening phrase of the first subject is heard first 
in the key of C minor (the dominant minor), after which the subject, 
contracted from eight bars to six, appears regularly in the key of the tonic. 

(g) The second subject reappears slightly lengthened and modified 
and in the original minor instead of in the tonic major. This change 
of mode, a favourite device of Mozart's, gives the subject a new and very- 
beautiful effect, t 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is a sixteen-bar sentence in four-bar rhythm. 
After the half -cadence in the tonic, bar 8, the melody is repeated an 

* "Rhythm, Analysis, and Musical Form," T. H. Bertenshaw, B.A., B.Mus. 
t See Sonata VIII, first movement, footnote to (j), page 50. 



12 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

octave lower, the final phrase being altered to close with a perfect 
cadence. 

(b) The transition starts on a tonic pedal in F major. Bars 21-24 
repeat the foregoing phrase with the upper parts inverted.* A short de- 
scending sequence follows (25-28), varied slightly in the last bar, and 
modulating, in 27, to C major. The transition ends, bar 37, on a cadence 
several times repeated on G, the dominant of C major, in which key 
the second subject appears. 

(c) It is rather unusual for a second subject in quick movements in 
sonata- form to contain only one section i.e., theme. t 

In. this movement the subject consists of one sentence in which, like 
in the first subject, the second part (5O-66 1 ) is a varied repetition of the 
first; here it is also lengthened by cadential repetition of the final phrase. 
It is interesting to note that the opening two-bar section becomes, on re- 
petition, a three-bar section, 40-42^ And, on the other hand, that a com- 
parison of bars 46 3 -49 with 59-62 proves that here the former is a three- 
bar phrase, and not a two-bar section lengthened by the sequential repeti- 
tion in its second bar. Another point to notice is that the melody in bars 
50-53 is accompanied in the left hand by an imitation a tenth below. 
Compare the semiquaver passage, bars 59-65, with that in bars 5-8. 

(d) The codetta commences with a figure founded on the opening 
notes of the first subject; the semiquaver figures also may be traced to 
those occurring earlier in the exposition. 

(e) The free fantasia refers alternately to the opening bars of the 
second subject and to a passage (burs 25-28) from the transition. It 
starts in the key of C minor and modulates through G minor, B flat 
minor, and F major to D minor, on the dominant of which key it ends, 
bar 1 06. This exceptional:}: ending of the development section i.e., on 
the dominant harmony in the key of the relative minor is a most inter- 



* It is possible to consider that bars 17-24 form a part of the first subject ; 
in that case they would form a codetta to the subject, though codettas, as such, are 
not usually marked after this subject. 

f See, however, the first movements, Sonata III, in B flat, and Sonata VII in 
C major. 

| I.e., in a general way exceptional, for Mozart seems very partial to this method 
of approaching the recapitulation. In the slow movement of Sonata V the Free 
Fantasia also terminates, as here, on the dominant harmony in the relative minor 
key, and in various other movements (see e.g., Sonata it, first movement, and 
Sonata IV, third movement) this section practically ends in this key, modulating 
only in the very last bar or even chord to the dominant harmony in the key of the 
tonic. 



SONATA NO. II. 13 

esting point to notice, for, in the older classical music, it was the almost 
universal practice to end this section of the movement on the dominant 
harmony in the key of the tonic. Note also (i) the continual inversion 
and re-inversion of the parts, bars 90-106; (ii) the chord of the Neapolitan 
sixth, bar 98; and (iii) the Italian sixth, bars 102 and 104. 

(f) The second transition starts like the original passage; it is, how- 
ever, lengthened by four bars (136-139), which form a real sequence to 
the previous four. The latter part is modified to lead into the second 
subject in the key of the tonic. 

(g) The codetta reappears slightly lengthened, 
(h) See (1) first movement, page 9. 



SONATA No. Ill, IN B FLAT MAJOR (K. 281), (1777). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



> ^ - - i <; . ^-^*^ 




three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT- 
EXPOSITION. 


"ALLEGRO," IN B FLAT 
Bars. FREE FANTASIA. 


MAJOR. SONATA FORM 
RECAPITULATION. 


'.. 
Bars. 


(a)* First Subject in Tonic, 
(b) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition, 
(c) Second Subject in F 
major (Dominant), 
(d) Codetta. 
Double bar and repent. 


1-121 
12-1-171 

17-1-341 
34-1-40 


(e) Bars 4169. 


First Subject in Tonic 
( unaltered) . 
Transition (unaltered). 
(f) Second Subject (in 
Tonic). 
Codetta. 


70-811 
81-1-861 

86-1-1031 
103-1-109 


SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE," IN E FLAT M 
fMODIFlED SONATA 
EXPOSITION. Bars. LINK. 


AJOR (KEY OF THE SUBDOMINANT). 
FORM. 
RECAPITULATION. Bars. 


(a) First Subject in Tonic, 
(b) Bridge-p a .s s a g e or 
Transition, 
(c) Second Subject in B flat 
major (Dominant), 
(d) Double bar and repeat. 


1-15 

16-27 

28-46 


(e) Bars 47-58. 


(f) First Subject in Tonic 
(varied in first half), 
(g) Transition. 
Second Subject (in 
Tonic). 


59-73 

74-87 

88-106 


THIRD MOVEMENT (a) "] 

o C (b) Principal Subject (first ( 
^ tn.-5 j (c) Bridge-passage or p 
(d) Second Subject or E 
*" Si & / (s) Link 


^ONDO." ALLEGRO IN B FLAT MAJOR. 

>ntrv > ) in Tonic 


Bars. 


1-17 

18-27 
28-432 
43 
433-511 

52-67 
68-70 


assage of Transitio 
Episode I in F majc 


n 


r (Dominant) 


-fc tr4 { (f) Principal Subject (second entry) in Toni< 
Double bar. 
(g) Episode II in G minor (relative minor), Binary 
( Part I 


3, Partial appearance only 

Form 

52-59) 

60-67 ( 


Doul 
Part II 
Doul 
Hi) Link 


le bar and repeat. 


ne bar and repeat. } 



* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 

text. 

t Bertenshaw considers this movement to be in Unabridged Sonata form. 



SONATA NO. III. 15 

Principal Subject (third entry) in Tonic, Complete as at first, to which is ; 

added a half-bar's link modulating to the key of E flat major ... ... 71 3 891 

(j) Episode III I 90-1092 

New melody in E flat major (key of the Subdominant) followed by a pas- j 

sage modulating back to original key. 

Link ... ' J1093-1142 

(k) Principal Subject (fourth entry) in Tonic, Partial appearance, ending 

with momentary modulation to F major ... ... ... ... ... |114 3 123 

Second Subject (or Episode I) transposed into the key of the Tonic ... 1241401 

140-1422 

1423-162 



Link 



(1) Principal Subject (fifth entry) in Tonic. Exact repetition of the original 
appearance with three bars added to emphasise the final cadence 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is an eight-bar sentence ending on a perfect 
cadence, after which it is prolonged by a further four bars on tonic pedal. 

The presence of a tonic pedal over which there are momentary sug- 
gestions of the subdominant key, is so often incidental to a codetta as to 
give these bars the effect of here forming a codetta to the first subject.* 
It will be noticed that the perfect cadence with which the first phrase of 
this subject ends is rendered less conclusive, not only by reason of the 
third of the final chord being in the highest part, but also because of 
the position of the chord on a weak portion of the bar. 

(b) The transition consists of a series of scale passages, those in bars 
12-14 forming a free melodic sequence. 

(c) The second subject contains only one section! (i.e., theme), which 
is much prolonged by sectional and cadential repetitions. Bars 22-26 
form a short sequence in which the parts are inverted bar by bar. Hadow 
marks the subject as commencing with the first beat in bar 18, instead 
of with the "musical prefix" in 17.+ 

(d) The codetta incidentally touches the key of B flat major (the 
subdominant key) in bars 34 and 36, and ends on a short tonic pedal in 
F major, bars 38-40. 

(e) The free fantasia commences in F major with a reference to the 
slurred figures in the second subject, the accompaniment being a varied 
continuation of that heard in the last bars of the codetta. In bars 45-48 
the second phrase of the first subject is transposed into the same key and 



* See Sonata VIII, slow movement (e), page 50. 

f See also Sonata II, in F major, third movement, and Sonata VII, in C major, 
first movement. 

I " Sonata Form," by W. H. Hadow. 



!6 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

followed by a few bars worked on triplet figures, which, touching tran- 
siently the keys of G minor and C major, end (in 54) with a definite 
modulation to G minor. In the following bars we find references to the 
demisemiquaver figures from bar 3, and to further fragments from the 
second subject. From bar 55-63, where there is a modulation to E flat 
major, the music oscillates between the keys of G minor and C minor, 
returning to F major in 67-68. The final chord of F major is here 
quitted as the dominant of B flat major. 

(f) The second subject reappears in the key of the tonic. But for 
this change of key the whole of the recapitulation is practically a literal 
repetition of the exposition. 

For a long period such repetition more or less exact was a feature in sonata- 
form. In tracing the history and development of this form, therefore, it is of 
interest to bear this in mind as, owing to various causes, such parallelism in modern 
music has become unnecessary, and, in consequence, has to a large extent 
disappeared. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is a sentence of twelve bars, containing three 
phrases, prolonged to bar I 5 by cadential repetitions. It should be noted 
that the opening scale passage in thirds in the treble, is imitated, in the 
bass, by the passage in octaves which, overlapping, covers, together with 
the alto, the rhythmic break in the melody caused by the half -cadence 
on the prolonged B flat (bars 4-5). 

(b) The transition starts with a new figure and modulates, bar 20, 
to the key of the dominant, B flat major, on a half-cadence, in which key 
it ends 'bar 26). Bar 27 forms a link between it and the second subject. 

(c) The second subject consists of one sentence extended by caden- 
tial repetitions to nineteen bars. In the fore-phrase the bass imitates the 
melody at the tenth below. Bars 30-31 are a sequential repetition of 
28-29. 

(d) See foot-note t to tabulated scheme, and Sonata I, second move- 
ment (f), page 4. 

(e) Bars 47-58 form a passage mostly on B flat, the dominant 
leading to the return of the first subject. It modulates to the key of E 
flat major (bar 48) and, with the exception of bars 53-54, consists of 
alternate tonic and dominant harmonies; it is based on figures from the 
second subject. 

Bar 53 == E flat major, ITj, 9b ; and bar 54 = t>VI It 6 , in the same 
key. 

(See Sonata II, slow movement, c, paragraph 2, page n.) 



SONATA NO. III. I/ 

(f) As is usually the case in slow movements in this form, the first 
subject reappears ornamented. It ends, however, unusually the re- 
peated chord on the tonic with which it closes in the exposition, being 
replaced here by the repetition of the last inversion of the dominant 
seventh in A flat major. These two chords are thus converted into a 
"link" leading into the transition which commences in the above key. 

(g) The transition modulates from A flat major, through F minor, 
to E flat major (the tonic); the keys of A flat to E flat bearing the same 
relation to each other as, in the original passage, E flat major bears to B 
flat major. 


THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) Mozart's rondos are an interesting study, as in them is clearly to 
be traced the gradual growth of the modern or sonata-rondo form,* 
a form due to the assimilation of the older and simpler type of rondo 
with certain characteristic features of the newer, and more highly- 
wrought, first-movement form. And, as a result of this very process of 
development, many of the rondos combine characteristic features from 
both forms, and they can therefore be considered from two distinct stand- 
points. On the one hand, they may be viewed as rondos of the older 
type, in which case certain unusual features will be found, due to the in- 
fluence of the newer form. On the other hand, they may be regarded 
as a new form in embryo, and in this case certain other characteristics of 
the fully developed form will be found to be more or less rudimental or, 
in some respects, wanting. 

In this particular movement, for example, the first part, up to the 
end of the second entry of the principal subject (bar 51), resembles that 
of a sonata-rondot (see Thematic Scheme). At the same time, however, it 
should be observed that the melody in F major (28-43), though it reap- 
pears like a second subject at the end of the movement in the key of the 
tonic, is hardly of the importance to give the impression of a true second 
subject.% In addition to this, a perfectly regular sonata-rondo does not 

* The type of rondo which Beethoven perfected. 

f The partial reappearance of the principal subject at its first re-entry is, how- 
ever, unusual in the modern type of rondo, whereas the immediately following 
episode and the third entry of the principal subject are typical of both forms. 

I In reference to this passage Banister says : "It seems, perhaps, more natural 
to regard that which I have designated the second subject, as a second part of the 
first subject; it may be said that there is, so to speak, a complete little movement in 
the original key, with transient tributory modulation, prior to the occurrence of any 
episode properly so called." ("Lectures on Musical Analysis," H. C. Banister.) 

3 



j 8 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

contain three episodes, nor five entries of the principal subject; the epi- 
sode in E flat major (commencing bar 90), and the consequent extra 
entry of the principal subject, are more characteristic of the older rondo 
form.* 

(b) The principal subject consists of two sentences, of which the 
second seems to form a series of cadence extensions to the first : the ex- 
tensions lying outside, or beyond, the perfect cadence. The opening 
motive is repeated a degree lower, the first two bars thus being in se- 
quence. The second phrase (bars 4 3 -8 1 ), is a modified repetition of the 
first, altered at the end so as to close with a perfect, instead of with a 
half, cadence. 

(c) Bars 18-27 form a passage of transition which is founded on 
figures from the latter part of the principal subject. This passage modu- 
lates, bar 22, to F major (the dominant), in which key it ends on a half- 
cadence (27). A half -bar's link leads to a new melody the second sub- 
ject (or first episode) in the above key. 

(d) The eight bars, 32-39*, although consisting of what is virtually 
a four-bar phrase and its re-statement, divides actually into a phrase of 
three bars the shortening being caused by the first bar of the re-state- 
ment overlapping the original phrase, followed by one of five bars, the 
latter being prolonged by the interpolation of a bar, viz., bar 37. 

That the phrases do overlap in bar 35, in spite of certain appearances to the 
contrary, seems evident and for the following reasons. Bar 34 being, undoubtedly, 
the penultimate bar of a phrase, and therefore unaccented, proves not only that 35 is 
the fourth and cadence-bar (for no accented bar can be elided), but, by counting 
backwards that 32 should be the first bar.f But for the purpose of rhythmic analysis 
the first bar of a phrase is that which contains the first strong accent in other 
words, it must be a whole bar. Notwithstanding therefore the general rule that, for 
such analysis, the melody (i.e., the treble) of a musical passage is alone to be re- 
garded, it seems only rational in this instance as the treble in bar 32 commences 
with a short rest to assume that the phrase starts in this bar (and therefore simi- 
larly in bar 35) on the bass-note A i.e., on the only note that sounds the first strong 
accent. And more especially does this view appear the correct one, as the previous 
phrase undoubtedly ends with the last treble note in bar 31. 

Viewed otherwise, according to invariable rule, bar 32, being incomplete, no 
matter that it is by only one quaver does not form the first bar of, but is merely a 
musical prefix to, the following phrase. 

Another interesting point to notice in this subject is that the cadence 
bars, 38-39 1 , are a repetition in the key of the dominant of those in the 
first subject, bars 7-8 1 . Such repetition had its origin in the old binary 

* On account of its containing three subordinate themes (i.e., episodes) Percy 
Goetschius refers to this movement as in "irregular" or "augmented" rondo 
form. 

t See " Musical Form," by E. Front. 



SONATA NO. III. IQ 

form. We occasionally meet with traces of a similar survival in the 
earlier sonata-allegro movements of Haydn and Mozart. In these in- 
stances, however, the repetition takes place at the commencement of the 
second subject, the melody, which has just been heard in the key of the 
tonic as the first subject, being reproduced (with more or less modifica- 
tion) in the key of the dominant to form the -first section of the second 
subject. This repetition only affects the first section, however, and is 
always followed by fresh subject-matter, which forms a continuation of 
the second subject. 

(e) The passage, in bar 43, marked " ad libitum," extending from 
the ^ to the two crotchets at the end, forms a link connecting the above 
melody with the second entry of the principal subject. 

(f) At its first re-entry, a portion only of the principal subject the 
first eight bars is heard.* The three notes, C, C sharp and D (bar 51) 
form a link leading into the following episode. 

(g) This episode is in simple binary form and entirely in the key of 
G minor. 

Part I ends on a half -cadence, approached through the chord of the 
German sixth (bar 58). Note that the second phrase in Part II is a repro- 
duction in modified form of the second phrase in Part /, altered so as to 
close on a full, instead of on a half, cadence. t Note also the inversion 
of parts in bar 61. 

(h) Bars 68-70 form a link modulating from G minor to B flat major, 
and leading to the second re-entry of the principal subject. 

(j) This episode starts with a new melody in E flat major (the sub- 
dominant), in which key there is a perfect cadence, bar 101. It modu- 
lates afterwards through C minor (102-103), B flat major (104-105), and 
E flat major (106-108), back to B flat major, in which there is a half- 
close, bar 109. A link follows leading to the fourth entry of the prin- 
cipal subject. Note that bars ioi 3 -iO5 1 form a real sequence. 

(k) As at the second entry, this is only a partial appearance of the 
principal subject, the first phrase of which, slightly modified, is given 
out twice. The first time (bars Ii4 3 -ii8), the melody is taken in an inner 
part under an inverted dominant pedal ; in the repetition, which immedi- 
ately follows (ii9 3 -i23), with the previous parts inverted. There is 



* See footnote f to a (supra). 
f See Sonata VIII, third movement, footnote || to h. 



20 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

momentary modulation to F major at the cadence.* A link of descending 
triplets, instead of the original "transition," leads directly into the re- 
petition of the melody in Episode I, now transposed into the key of the 
tonic. 

(1) As above stated, the fifth entry of the principal subject present 
i-n this movement owing to the extra episode is unusual in sonata-rondo 
form, the fourth entry being, as a rule, the final one. Even this is more 
often incomplete, sometimes only a phrase or still less -appears and 
then merges into the coda. And where tne coda is founded on the prin- 
cipal subject the fourth entry, as such, is sometimes omitted. 



* Opinions differ as to whether in such instances as this, a change of key in the 
passage is even momentarily effected. The general rule is, that whereas no single 
chord can, by itself, effect a modulation, yet that whenever the dominant harmony 
of a new key is followed by some chord characteristic of such new key generally the 
chord of the tonic a modulation to that key does take place. Some, therefore, would 
mark every such succession as a fresh modulation. On the other hand, many con- 
sider that w.hen it is a question as in this instance of the progression V-I in the key 
of the dominant (or in that of the sub-dominant 1 ) a modulation is not necessarily 
effected if the passage unmistakably continues in the same key as immediately pre- 
cedes these chords. These, therefore, would mark the above passage as a half-cadence 
in B flat. 



SONATA No. IV, IN E FLAT MAJOR (K. 282), (i;;;). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Adagio 




I 

In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT (a)* "ADAGIO," IN E FLAT MAJOR, (b) BINARY FORM. 



PART I. 


Bars. 


PART II. 


Bars. 

16-26 

27-33 
34-36 


(c) Melody in E flat major (Tonic). 
[Modulating by means of a pas- 
\ sage resembling a "Bridge," or 
("Transition," passage to 
(d) Second melody in B flat major 
(Dominant) 
(e) Half-bar's link 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-4 

4-3-8 
9-153 

153-4 


(f) 

g 
1 
I 

(g) c 


Slight development of first 
melody followed by the modu- 
lating passage modified so as 
to lead to the second melody in 
the key of the Tonic ... 
iecond melody transposed into 
3 flat major followed by the 
alf -bar's link 
Double bar and repeat, 
oda 



SECOND MOVEMENT (a) MENUETTOS I AND II. MINUET AND TRIO FORM 

(TERNARY). 



PART I. 


Bars. 


PART II. 


Bars. 


PART III. 


(b) MENUETTO I IN B FLAT 




MENUETTO II IN E FLAT 






MAJOR. 




MAJOR. 






(c) TERNARY FORM. 




TERNARY FORM. 






(d) Part i. 




(g) Part i. 






Sentence in B flat 




(a) 8 bars in E flat 






major (Tonic) modu- 




major (Tonic). 


To 82 


Menuetto I 


lating to F major 




(b) 8 bars in B flat 




Da Capo 


(Dominant). 


To 12 


major (Dominant). 


83-16 




Double bar and repeat. 




Double bar and repeat. 






(e) Part ii. 




Part ii. 






Passage modulating 




Passage containing 






back to B flat major 




slight development 


163-241 




and leading to 


123-182 


leading to 






(f) Part Hi. 




Part Hi. 






Repetition of Part i 




Repetition of Part i 






entirely in B flat major 
(Tonic). 


183-32 


with (a) and (b) both in 
the key of the Tonic. 


243-40 




Double bar and repeat.! 


Double bar and repeat. 







THIRD MOVEMENT " ALLEGRO," IN E FLAT MAJOR, SONATA FORM. 
EXPOSITION. 

(a) First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition. 



Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


To 81 
8-2-15 

16-39 


(d) Bars 39-2-61. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered). 
Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (transposed 
into the key of the 
Tonic), 
(e) Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
(f } Double bar and repeat. 


61-2-691 

69-2-76 
77-102 



(c) Second Subject in B 
flat major (Dominant). 
Double bar and repeat. 

* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 
test. 



22 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) Of Mozart's pianoforte sonatas the one under consideration and 
No. 11, in A major, are the only two which do not commence with the 
usual quick movement.* According to Goodrich, it would appear that 
Mozart was the first to vary the sonata (i) as, in this instance, by writing 
the opening movement and not merely the introduction adagio, t and 
(ii) by writing it, as in No. n, as an air with variations. The latter is 
also a slow movement marked " Andante grazioso." 

Though not one of Mozart's pianoforte sonatas contains more than 
three movements the four-movement form for pianoforte solo being 
very rare before the time of Beethoven* Prout's remark on the latter's 
Sonata in C sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2, viz., " that it resembles a regular 
four-movement sonata with the first movement omitted," is curiously ap- 
plicable to this sonata, the two works, as regards sequence of movements, 
being also of very similar construction. Compare the following : 



First movement 



Sonata in E flat major Sonata, Op. 27, No. 2, 

Mozart. Beethoven 



Adagio 



Second movement jMenuettos I and II 

Third movement j Allegro in sonata-form. 



Adagio. 

Allegretto (in the form of a 

Minuet and Trio). 
Presto in sonata-form. 



(b) The form of this movement is not of very definite design and, 
as a natural consequence, we find that authorities differ as to the view 
they take of it. We analyse it here as in a species of binary form, for, 
whilst the general outline of the greater part of the movement resembles 
that of sonata-form, some authorities do not classify it as such even of 
a modified description owing to the unusual nature of the first portion 
of Part II.II 



* It is well to point out here that Sonata No XIV" (in C minor) is no exception 
to the rule. For the Fantasia (No. 475 in Kochel's Catalogue) which is usually pub- 
lished in connection with, and preceding Sonata XIV, and which starts adagio, is 
not part of the sonata itself, the latter commencing with the regular sonata-allegro 
movement. 

t Goodrich considers this " Adagio " to be in sonata form (see supra b). " Com- 
plete Musical Analysis," by A. J. Goodrich. 

| Hadow remarks that: " Before Beethoven it seems to have been, a convention 
that the ' modern ' sonata should consist of three movements (Allegro, Adagio or 
Minuet and Finale), and that the symphony and the larger kinds of chamber music 
should consist of four." 

" Applied Forms," by E. Front. 

|| Banister applies the phrase, "somewhat extended song-form," to the move- 
ment. (See "Lectures on Musical Analysis.") 



SONATA NO. IV. 23 

On the other hand, Goodrich considers it to be in sonata-form and 
accounts for the entire absence of the first subject in the recapitulation 
by the fact that this subject has already been developed in the "sonata 
part." 

(c) There is a perfect cadence in the tonic, bars 3-4, after which the 
following bars modulate and end on an inverted cadence on F quitted 
as the dominant in B flat major. 

(d) This melody forms a regular second subject in the key of the 
dominant. There is an interrupted cadence, bar 13, after which the pre- 
vious two bars are repeated varied, ending the second time with a perfect 
cadence, bar 15. 

(e) The link modulates back to the key of E flat major and leads 
(i) to the repetition of Part I, and (ii) to Part II. 

(f) Part II opens with a slight development of the first melody. The 
demisemiquaver figures (bars 20-21) are taken from those in the second 
melody, as also, by augmentation, are the semiquaver figures in the pre- 
vious two bars. The inversion and re-inversion of the parts, bars 18-20, 
should be noted. The remainder of Part II (i.e., from bar 22 to the coda) 
is a repetition of the corresponding portion of Part I, with slight varia- 
tions and, of course, the usual modification of key. 

(g) Part II is repeated. The short coda which follows the double 
bar and repeat,* is reminiscent of the opening bars of the movement. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) The second minuet is very often called the "Trio."t Only one 
other of Mozart's pianoforte sonatas (viz., No. XI, in A major) contains 
a minuet and trio.} The Sonata in B flat major, commencing 




which is found in many editions of Mozart's sonatas, and which also con- 
tains a minuet and trio, is not an original work. See Sonata XX, third 
movement (a), page 164. 

* See Sonata V, slow movement, k, par. ii, page 30. 

t Percy Goetschius is of the opinion that the use of the term "Menuetto II" 
probably antedates that of the word Trio. He quotes as an example Bach's use of 
the term Bourree I and II in his second English Suite. 

J It is of interest to note here that the second movement of Sonata X (the slow 
movement) is written in minuet and trio form. 



24 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

Of the four movements in this last-named composition, the origin 
of two is unknown, whilst of the Andante and Rondo, the former is an 
arrangement of a movement out of a pianoforte Concerto in B flat major 
by Mozart, and the latter is an adaptation from three of his rondos taken 
from as many pianoforte concertos in the same key.* 

(b) Menuetto I is in the key of the dominant, and No. 2 (the trio) in 
the key of the tonic. More usually the first minuet is in the same key as 
the. first movement, and the " trio " in a related key. This is specially the 
case in four-movement sonatas where the "minuet and trio" generally 
come third with an intervening slow movement in a related key. 

(c) Leading musicians are not agreed as to whether the form in 
which these minuets t are written is binary or ternary. Until compara- 
tively recent times the former opinion seems to have been almost uni- 
versal, but of later years most authorities agree in favouring the latter. 
According to the older theory, the whole of the portion of music between 
the two sets of double bars -in Menuetto I from bar i2 3 -32, and in Menu- 
etto II from bar i6 3 ~4O is reckoned as Part II ; according to the newer, as 
here analysed, as Parts II and III. 

For a thorough study of this most interesting point the author refers 
students to the following list of works as an adequate discussion on the 
subject would be far beyond the scope of the present one. Moreover, 
this course would necessitate liberal quotations from the various books 
mentioned, and in the end would not be nearly so satisfying to students, 
nor so satisfactory, as by reading them fully and with all their context 
in the originals. Appended is the list : 

" Musical Form," Ebenezer Prout.J 

" Applied Forms," Ebenezer Prout. 

"Rhythm, Analysis and Musical Form," T. H. Bertenshaw. 

" Sonata Form," W. H. Hadow. 

" Form in Music," Stewart Macpherson. 

(d) Part I is an eight-bar sentence extended to twelve bars by repeti- 
tions in the second phrase. The first phrase ends on an inverted cadence 
in the tonic, bar 4, the second on a perfect cadence in the dominant. 

* Herr Gustav Nottebohm attributes these arrangements to Herr A. E. Miiller. 
See Kochel's "Thematic Catalogue." 

t And all such pieces of similar construction. 

| This list merely mentions a few of the important books on the subject, and is 
by no means given as an exhaustive one. Nevertheless a careful study of these works 
in conjunction with numerous musical examples from the old classical composers 
should enable a student to obtain a thorough grasp of the subject. 



SONATA NO. IV. 25 

(e) Part II is a passage of six bars starting chromatically and modu- 
lating to the key of B flat major, in which it ends on a half-cadence, 
bar 1 8. 

(f) Note the inversion of the parts in the opening phrase (bars iS 3 - 
22); compare with the opening phrase in Part I. The after-phrase is 
slightly lengthened, and modified so as to end in the key of the tonic in- 
stead of the dominant. 

(g) As regards its form, the special point to notice in Menuetto II 
is the division of Part I into two distinct portions, a in the tonic, modula- 
ting to the dominant, and b in the key of the dominant, both a and b re- 
appearing in Part III in the key of the tonic. This dividing of Part I 
is one of the features which marks the gradual evolution of the larger 
sonata-form out of the older and smaller forms. In this instance the 
melody in b grows directly out of that in a\ a most interesting example 
of another and still further step in advance is shown in the before-men- 
tioned minuet in A major (Sonata XI). In the latter case, combined with 
the division of Part I into the two portions a and b, is to be found in 
embryo the "contrast of melody between the two subjects" so essential 
an element in the larger form. 



THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject consists of two four-bar phrases; it ends on a 
half -cadence in the tonic. 

(b) The transition modulates into the key of B flat major (the dom- 
inant), in which it ends on a half cadence, bar I5 1 ; a half-bar's link leads 
into the second subject. 

(c) The second subject consists of an eight-bar sentence (16-23) 
which is repeated, bars 24-39, this time being varied and considerably 
lengthened by cadential repetitions. It should be noted that in bars 30- 
31, an interrupted cadence replaces the original perfect cadence, and leads 
to the following cadential repetitions. 

(d) The free fantasia refers to the first subject. Bars 43~ 2 -4/ 2 , start- 
ing with the chord of A flat minor and modulating to E flat major, are 
in sequence to the previous four bars in B flat minor and F minor. Note 
the inversion of parts in the following eight bars (47~ 2 55 2 ), which are 
worked on the opening motive and which, passing through the keys of 
A flat major and B flat minor to C minor, form a modulating sequence. 
Note also the chord C minor VI, It 6 , bar 59 The music returns to the 



26 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

key of the tonic in the last bar of the section only* (61), where the chord 
of the dominant in C minor (relative minor) resolves on to an inversion 
of the dominant seventh in E flat major. 

(e) There is no coda; two extra bars are added at the end of the 
second subject to emphasise the final cadence. 

(f) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 



* See Sonata II, first movement ; cf . also the third movement of the same sonata ; 
and Sonata V, second movement. 



A llegro 



SONATA No. V, IN G MAJOR (K. 283), (i;;;> 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



f-f--=5Ttl=L_* ^ , |-^= t f-ri^ ~~j^ 




4 , ^1 1 7 

) - 

(to-i=E; 


- -- . j - --l 1 - | - e 




;~rf=SfeF-^ 


-P- 


Z/< three movements. 




FIRST MOVEMEI 
EXPOSITION. 


W " ALLEGRO," IN G MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 
Bars. PART II. RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(a)* First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-passage or 
Transition, 
(c) Second Subject in D 
major (Dominant), 
(d) (First f 23-431.) 
(e) 1 Second 43-1-53. j 
Double bar and repeat. 


To 161 (f) Episode ** 
1 /New Melody 
['54-62. 
16-222 1 Passage modu- 
| lating and lead- 
2353 ing to Recapitu- 
j Mation, 62-71. 


(g) First Subject in Tonic 
(modified). \ 713-831 
Bridge-passage (unal- 
tered), i 832-89 
Second Subject (in! 
Tonic). j 90-120 
(First 90-1101. ) 
1 Second 110-1-120. J 


SECOND MOVEMENT 
EXPOSITION. 


" ANDANTE," IN C MAJOR (KEY OF THE SUBDOMINAN 
(a) SONATA FORM. 
Bars. FREE FANTASIA. ; RECAPITULATION. 


T). 
Bars. 


(b) First Subject in Tonic, 
(c) Bridge-passage or 
Transition, 
(d) Second Subject in G 
major (Dominant). 
Link, 
(e) Double bar and repeat. 


1-4 

5-8 

9-14 
143-4 


(g) First Subject in Tonic, 
(h) Bridge-p a s s a ge or 
(f) Bars 15-23. Transition. 
Second Subject in 
Tonic, 
(j) Double bar and repeat. 
;(k) Coda. 


24-27 
28-31 
32-37 
37o.-39 


THIRD MOVEME 
EXPOSITION. 


NT "PR 

Bars. 


ESTO," IN G MA 
PART II. 


JOR. SONATA FORM. 
! RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(a) First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition, 
(c) Second Subject in D 
major (Dominant)., 
(d) rFirst 41-561. } 
fe^l ] Second 562-731. \ 
(f) ( Third 733-102. J 

Double bar and repeat. 


1-24 

25-40 
41-102 


(g) Episode. 

New melody, bars 
103-1381. 
Concluding bars 
of the Exposition 
taken in E minor. 
D minor and C 
major, 1383-1471. 
Episodical pas- 
sage leading to 
Recapitulation, 
1473-170. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered). 
Bridge-passage (unal- 
tered) . 
Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
(First 212-2271. } 
\ Second 2272-2441. ! 
[Third 2443-273. J 

(h) Double bar and repeat, 
(j) Coda. 


172-195 
196-211 
212-273 

274 



text. 



These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 



t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 
** See footnote ** to Thematic Scheme, Sonata VIII, page 46. 



28 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is a theme of ten bars (4 + 6), extended to six- 
teen by repetition of the second phrase. It ends with a perfect cadence 
in the tonic. 

(b) The transition forms an ascending sequence, the latter part of 
which is written on an amplified variation of the initial figure. It modu- 
lates through C major and G major to D major, the dominant. 

(c) The second subject in D major divides into two sections. 

(d) The first section commences with a four-bar phrase which is re- 
peated varied (27-30). In the latter part of the section, however, the pro- 
portion of the sentence which is repeated is more unusual, for, after a 
full cadence in D major, bars 37-38, we find five out of the previous seven 
bars given out a second time. 

In bar 34 2 - 3 (repeated 3Q 2 " 3 ) the inversion of the previous parts should 
be noted, as also the third and fifth chords which are the third inversion 
of the dominant minor ninth in A major and G major respectively, 
through which keys the music momentarily passes.* 

(e) The second section (bars 43" 1 ~53) commences with the opening 
figure of the transition taken in the treble with imitation, at the fourth 
(eleventh) below, in the bass. Bars 45-46 are founded on the opening 
bars o f the first section of the subject (compare with bars 23-24); bars 
48-50 form a varied repetition of 45-47. The section ends with a per- 
fect cadence, twice repeated, over a short tonic pedal. t 

(f) In this movement a short episode which bears slightly, but only 
slightly, upon the exposition, takes the place of the customary working- 
out section. 

Such episodes, as a general rule, are rare, but they are to be found in various 
other sonata-allagro movements by Mozart. \ With reference to them Hadow re- 
marks that they belong exclusively to the earlier period of the Free Fantasia, He 
continues: " Even where they occur e.g., in Mozart's Sonata in Gr (No. 5) the epi- 
sode generally bears some sort of relation to the Exposition i.e., it is not a new 
idea altogether, but one which bears resemblance, however remote, to the phrase- 
ology of the first or second subject." 

* Cf. Sonata IX, second movement, footnote * to (d), page 59. 

iiQ 1 t^ idle ^^ r ? n ^ ce marks ba . rs 51 ' 53 as "Coda" to the exposition, and bars 
Prenti^ T t0 entire movement. (See "The Musician," by Ridley 

I See also last movement of this sonata ; Sonate VI, in D major, first movement ; 
feonata \, in C major, last movement ; and Sonata XII, first and third movements. 
Cf. Sonata I, first movement (g), paragraph ii. 



SONATA NO. V. 2Q 

The passage on D, bars 62-68 1 , over which a descending sequence is 
written, should be noted. It starts as the tonic in D major, but a modu- 
lation to G major (bar 63) converts it into the dominant in the latter key. 
Characteristic figures oh dominant harmony lead to the recapitulation of 
the first subject, bar /I 3 . 

(g) The first subject reappears modified. After the first phrase has 
been heard in its original key it is immediately repeated in A minor (75 3 - 
79), the first eight bars of the subject thus forming a modulating sequence. 
The after-phrase, in the key of C major, also differs from the original. 
Again, it should be noted that whilst, in the exposition, the second phrase 
alone is repeated, here the first phrase occurs twice and the second only 
once. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) See Sonata I, second movement (a), page 4. 

(b) The first subject ends with a perfect cadence, bar 4, and, as here 
written, is in two-bar rhythm. The movement, however, is not really in 
*, but in | time, consequently the first subject is virtually an eight-bar 
sentence containing two four-bar phrases. 

(c) In bar 6 the transition modulates to G major (the dominant), in 
which key it ends on a half -cadence, bar 8. 

(d) The special point to notice in this subject is in the responsive 
phrase (11-14) an d arises from the fact that the movement is barred, as 
above mentioned, in |, instead of in time. The passage here written 
as bars n-12 3 is immediately repeated overlapping from bar I2 3 -I4, and 
thus apparently causes inversion of the accents. That the inversion is 
only apparent and not real will be conclusively proved by re-writing the 
movement in J time, when the first notes, both of the original phrase and 
of its repetition, will fall on the strong accent of the bar. Not only is this 
the case, but the so-called " elision" of the cadence-bar, which occurs 
between the two phrases, will also become evident; for the second half 
of bar 12, instead of forming the final and accented bar of the original 
phrase becomes the first unaccented bar of the repetition.* A link on 
dominant harmony, C major Vpb (bar 14), leads to the repetition of the 
exposition, and a very similar one in D minor (bar I4a) leads to the free 
fantasia. 

(e) See Sonata I, second movement (f), page 4. 

* See Sonata VII, first movement (b), paragraph ii, page 42. 



30 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(f) The free fantasia refers chiefly to the first subject. It com- 
mences in D minor with a repetition of the foregoing link, followed by 
a variation on it which, taken first in the bass and then repeated in the 
treble, leads to the opening phrase of the first subject. This is given 
successively, curtailed at each repetition, in the keys of (i) D minor 
with modulation at the close to C major; (ii) in C major, ending on an in- 
version of the dominant ninth in A minor ; and (iii) in A minor in this 
instance with inversion of parts. After slight working of one of the 
figures inverted, the section closes with a thrice repeated half -cadence in 
the last-named key the relative minor to the tonic* formed of the 
chord of the dominant preceded by that of the augmented sixth. A 
chromatic run follows which leads into the recapitulation. 

(g and h) The first subject, otherwise unaltered, is modified in the 
last bar and ends on the dominant seventh in F major, in which key the 
transition commences. The latter passage, starting in F major and 
modulating to C major, thus corresponds with the original one, which 
commences in C major and modulates to G major. 

(j) The remarks made at (1), (Sonata II, first movement) are also 
applicable in the rare instances in which, as here, the second part of a 
slow movement in sonata-form is marked to be repeated. 

(k) The coda reiterates with varied harmony the opening phrase of 
the first subject, or, as Banister quaintly remarks, it takes "a last fond 
look at the subject." t It starts in the previous bar with the figure in demi- 
semiquavers from bar fourteen. Commencing in the bass, this figure is 
repeated sequentially, with imitation in the treble starting a beat later. 
Note that the first half of bar 38 forms the chromatic chord, C major, 
II; C . 

This is an example of the original purpose of the Coda, which, at first, was only 
employed in movements where the Free Fantasia and the Recapitulation were re- 
peated. The close of the movement being in itself practically a repetition of the 
close of the twice-heard exposition (of course transposed into the tonic key) it was 
felt that this fourth hearing of the same melody was sometimes hardly sufficiently 
striking to act as the climax to the entire movement, and so a few bars were added 
?;t the end of the Recapitulation, as in this instance, after the double bar and repeat 
marks. In the finale to this sonata we find an instance of the simplest form of such 
a coda occurring at the end of a quick movement, and for a more important example 
see the first movement, "Allegro molto," of Sonata XIV, in C minor. 



* See Sonata II, third movement (e) and the footnote to same, page 12. 
t See "Lectures on Musical Analysis." 



SONATA NO. V. 31 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject enters on a tonic pedal over which the first two 
phrases are written. For sixteen bars it is in four-bar rhythm, but the 
passage of eight bars which follows the inverted cadence in 15-16, does 
not admit of being similarly sub-divided. In bars 13-16, the semiquaver 
figures which have previously . been heard in the treble (9-12) are trans- 
ferred to the bass, as also, in bars 18-24, are the slurred quaver figures 
which occurred in the treble (bars 13-16). 

(b) The transition is founded principally on figures derived from 
the first subject and, as in the latter, the first eight bars are written over a 
pedal. The music alternates between the keys of C major and G major, 
modulating only, in bar 38, to D major, the dominant, in which key it 
ends on an inverted cadence. 

Note that, during the pedal, the semiquaver figure in the bass is each 
time answered in the following bar by a semiquaver figure in the treble. 

(c) The second subject is divisible into three sections, each of which 
ends with a perfect cadence in D major (the key of the dominant). 
Although the passage from bar 56 2 -64 is clearly developed from bars 
48 2 -5<D 1 and, on that account, may by some analysers be regarded as a con- 
tinuation of the first section, owing to its fresh treatment it has such a 
distinct character of its own that it is here considered as starting a new, 
and second section. 

(d) The first section, sixteen bars in length, is founded on two 
figures : (a) the repeated triplet, bars 41-42; and (b) the small figure from 
bars 45 3 -46 1 . The first eight bars end on a half-cadence (48 1 ), whilst the 
second half of the section, otherwise a rhythmical repetition of the first, 
is lengthened by prefixing a new and what proves to be an important 
figure of two beats to the original opening motive. 

(e) The commencement of this section (bars 56 2 -64 J ) is specially note- 
worthy. It is developed from the opening bars of the second portion of 
the previous section, viz., 48 2 -5O 1 (see d). The figures instead of, as ori- 
ginally, being in one voice are here divided between the parts. Bars 56 2 - 
58 1 in D major are, in 58 2 -6o 1 , repeated by inversion in B minor and as the 
four bars under consideration are then reproduced in the keys of G major 
and E minor the whole passage forms a real sequence.* Bars 65-68 form 
the first inversion of the chromatic chord V\)g in D major. 



* See Sonata XI, Finale, footnote to (c), page 76 



32 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(f) The first part of the third section is founded mainly on a new 
figure with which it commences and which modulates transiently to B 
minor. Bars 76-78 are accompanied chromatically, three of the chords* 
being successively the second inversion of a diminished triad, a dimin- 
ished triad itself, and then a repetition of a second inversion; the latter 
form, twice met with here, is of very rare occurrence. After a perfect 
cadence in D major (80-8 1) the sentence is repeated inverted, and con- 
siderably lengthened, (i) by the interpolation of several bars, and (ii) by 
cadential extensions. t 

Bars 89-92 are taken from the previous section, the first two bars 
with inversion of the parts. 

(g) The second part of this movement consists principally of an 
episode in which, however, there are references to both subjects.* It starts 
in D minor, and modulates through A minor to E minor, in which key 
the greater portion of the episode is written. Bars 111-122, in the keys 
of A minor and E minor, are founded on the previous eight bars which 
are in D minor and A minor. A dominant pedal (123-131) follows, the 
parts being inverted from bar 127. The rhythm of this passage is de- 
rived from bars 13-16, in the first subject, whilst the following bars, as 
far as the full cadence in E minor (138), are taken from the second sec- 
tion of the second subject. In I38 3 -I47, the concluding bars of the second 
subject are heard in E minor, and are then followed by a short modula- 
ting sequence formed on their final four notes. In the ensuing passage, 
with which this portion of the movement closes, rhythms suggested by the 
different sections of the second subject are variously combined, some- 
times with inversion of parts. The passage ends with a chromat-c run 
following on a half cadence, VI It-6 ,V, in G minor (the tonic minor). 
Bars 119-121, and 134-135, form the chord of the German sixth in E 
minor. 

(h) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 

(j) Mozart himself marks these two chords " Coda." See (k) in the 
previous movement. 



* Equivalent here to derivatives, or incomplete inversions, of Dominant Sevenths 
as they are variously described hy different authorities. Compare these bars with 
bars 84-86, in which the parts are inverted. 

t Ridley Prentice calls bars 973-102, "Coda." There seems, however, no real 
necessity for thus separating them from the second subject, and we incline to the view 
which looks upon these bars as forming one of those cadential extensions which lie 
beyond, or outside, the perfect cadence; cf. Sonata VIII, second movement (e), 
page 50. 

| See first movement of this sonata (f), paragraph ii. 



SONATA No. VI * IN D MAJOR (K. 284), (i;;;). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Allegro 



P ^-^f^^iF--^ ^T 



9\ \_+ _l L 

f , f ^ r -^ : 



, f m i f f f f f f f t 

^' - 



In 



movements. 



FIRST MOVEMEN 
EXPOSITION. 


T "ALL 
Bars. 


EGRO," IN D MJ 
PART II. 


LJOR. SONATA FORM. 

RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(a)f First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (overlap- 
ping). 
Second Subject in A 
major (Dominant). 
<c) j First 11 22-381. } 
(d) (Second 38-51. J 

Double bar and repeat. 


1-91 

9-21 
22-51 


(e) Episode. 
Bars 52-71. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered) . 
Transition (unaltered). 

Second Subject in 
Tonic (lengthened and 
slightly varied). 
(First 93-1101. \ 
\ Second 110-127. J 
(f) Double bar and repeat. 


72-801 
80-92 

93-127 



SECOND MOVEMENT " RONDEAU EN POLONAISE," "ANDANTE," IN (a) A MAJOR. 
(KEY OF THE DOMINANT). OLDER RONDO FORM. 

Bars. 
1-16 



17-30 
31-46 
47-69 



70-92 



(b) Principal Subject (first entry) 

(c) Episode I, New Melody in the keys of A major (Tonic) and E major 

(Dominant) 

Principal Subject (second entry) varied ... 
Episode II, consisting of 

(d) (i) Link, or Passage of Transition, in F sharp minor, leading to 
(ii) the repetition of tjie melody from Episode I, slightly lengthened, 

and transposed into the keys of D major (Subdominant) and A 
major (Tonic) and closing on a half -cadence in A minor, 
(e) Principal Subject (third entry) lengthened and again varied 

Alternative analysis, designated by some authorities First Hondo Form 
(i.e., a Eondo which contains only one Episode.) 

I Principal Subject (a somewhat large Ternary Form) Bars 146 

One Episode only ... 47 < 

Principal Subject (second entry) ... 7092 

(Only the first portion of the Principal Subject is here repeated, 
it is, however, lengthened by seven bars.) 

* This pianoforte sonata, one of seven composed in the year 1777, appeared with, two others in 1784 as Op. 7 
(see Kochel's Catalogue). 

t See footnote * supra on page 27. 

t See footnote t supra on page 27. 

4 



34 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT (a) 

Variation: 

(b) I (c) II (d) HI (c) IV (I) V (ff) VI 

" TEMA " AND ALL VARIATIONS EXCEPT No. VII. 

A Sentence in D major (Tonic) and A 
major (Dominant). 
Double bar and repeat.** 

B First phrase (second sentence) ending on 
half -cadence in D major. J 

A 2 Second phrase (second sentence). Re- 
turn to opening\\ phrase of first 
sentence. 

Double bar and repeat. 



TEMA/' IN D MAJOR, AVITH TWELVE VARIATIONS. 

VII 0) VIII (k) IX (D X (m) XI () XII. 



VARIATION VII. 

A Sentence in D minor (Tonic minor) and 
A minor (Dominant minor). 

Double bar and repeat. 
B First phrase (second sentence) ending 

on half-cadence in D minor. 
Second phrase (second sentence). Re- 
turn to one of the phrases|| of first 
sentence. 
Double bar and repeat. 



** At the end of the first part of the eleventh and twelfth variations there are neither double-bar nor 
repeat marks ; also there are no repetition marks at the close of these two variations (see m and n). 

J At this point in a few of the Variations (Nos. 9, 10 and 11) there is a transient modulation to the key of 
the Dominant. It is possible that some theorists will look upon the cadence in these variations as an inverted 
perfect cadence in the dominant key, the majority, however, will probably consider it a half-cadence in the 
tonic. 

|| See footnotes t and % to (a), page 37. 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) Hadow refers to this first subject as an example of one which, in 
point of style and phraseology, he classifies under his third head, viz., 
"A set of two or more sectional passages in which rhythmic phrases and 
short melodic stanzas are combined " (see also Sonata I, first movement c). 

It is impossible to say with any certainty which point in this move- 
ment Mozart intended to be the end of the first subject. According to 
Stewart Macpherson* it might be on either the perfect cadence in the 
tonic, bar g, or on the half -cadence in the same key, bar 17. Another 
authority, however, looks upon the four bars on tonic pedal (9-12) as an 
extension of the final cadence of the first subject, and therefore places 
the end of the latter on the third beat of bar 12, considering the transition 
to start on the following F sharp (the last quaver in the same bar). 

It should be noted that the first phrase is written in unison, and that 
the second one is lengthened to five bars by repetition in bars 5-6. The 
semiquaver figures (bars 7 and 8) form a descending melodic sequence. 

(b) If the first subject is considered to end on the first beat of bar 9, 
the transition, which then commences with the four bars on tonic pedal 
(9-12) overlaps it (see paragraph a). It (the transition) continues to bar 21 



Form in Music," page 128. 



SONATA NO. VI. 35 

and, beyond a transient modulation to G major, is entirely in the key 
of the tonic in which it ends on a half -cadence. Bar 16 forms the chord 
of the augmented sixth in D major. 

(c) The first section of the second subject starts with a four-bar 
phrase ending on an inverted cadence (25); bars 26-29 repeat the fore- 
going in modified form. A five-bar phrase, whose first three bars rise 
sequentially, follows and ends on a half-cadence: A major t?VI G b V, 
(bars 33, 34). The final phrase is written on a dominant pedal. 

Compare bars 34-36 1 with bar 24, and note how they grow out of or 
are suggested by the earlier bar. 

(d) The second section commences with what is really a four-bar 
phrase, but which is contracted to three bars by the phrase being immedi- 
ately repeated overlapping. The responsive phrase is lengthened (i) by 
the sequential repetition of a bar (47), and (ii) by the cadential extension 
at the end of the phrase.* 

(e) The second part of this movement consists wholly of an episode. 
Although, in the usual acceptation of the term, there is no development 
of material from the first part, the germ of the episode is to be found 
there, t 

Compare, with bars 17 and 18, the opening motive of this episode 
with its semiquaver accompaniment. The section is full of inversion of 
parts and of sequential passages. Starting in the key of A minor, it 
modulates thence through E minor, B minor, F sharp minor, E minor, D 
minor and G minor to D major, on the dominant chord in which key it 
closes, bar /o 1 . 

9 

As a matter of fact, there is a transient modulation to A major at the cadence, 
and therefore some theorists may look upon it as an inverted cadence in that key, 
whose final chord is quitted as the Dominant chord in D major. The context of the 
passage is, however, against this view. For, the ante-penultimate chord of the 
cadence, which (as mentioned further on) forms the chord of the Neapolitan Sixth 
in D major, is absolutely foreign to the key of A major. This fact, whilst possibly 
not disproving the actual cadence to be in the latter key, goes far to support the 
view that it is in the key of D major.J 

Note that (i) the second chord in bar 60, which is taken as the first 
inversion of the chord of the submediant in B minor, is quitted as the 
Neapolitan sixth in F sharp minor; (ii) the third chord in bar 69 which, 
in similar manner is taken in G minor, is quitted in D major; (iii) the 

* Dr. Fisher calls bars 50-2-51 " Codetta." ("The Musical Examiner," by H. 
Fisher, Mus.Doc.) See Sonata V, third movement, footnote f to (f), page 32. 
f See (f), paragraph ii, in the first movement of the previous sonata 
| See Sonata III, third movement, footnote to (k), page 20. 



36 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

fourth chord in bar 68 is the first inversion of the chord on the minor 
seventh in the key of G minor*; and (iv) bars 70-71 form a link leading 
into the recapitulation. 

(f) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) It is not only somewhat unusual to find the slow movement of a 
sonata in rondo-form, but this movement is written also in the less usual 
key of the dominant.! The feminine ending to the cadences should be 
noted, not only in bars 8 and 16 (and at each repetition of the principal 
subject) but also in bar 30, the last bar of Episode I. This feature, com- 
bined with the triple time in which the movement is written, is the special 
characteristic of the Polonaise. 

(b) The principal subject, a sentence of sixteen bars, consists of an 
eight-bar theme in A major, ending the first time on a half-cadence; the 
theme is then repeated varied, ending the second time on a full cadence.J 

(c) The first episode starts with a new theme in the tonic, modulating 
(bar 22) to E major (dominant), in which key there is a full cadence, bar 
25 ; the sentence is then extended by cadential repetitions to bar 30. 

(d) In this passage, which ends on a half-cadence in F sharp minor, 
the bass descends chromatically. The cadence is formed by the chord 
of the augmented sixth the German sixth changing into the Italian 
sixth resolving on to the chord of the dominant. 

(e) The principal subject this time is not only considerably varied 
but is also lengthened by cadential repetitions. The original final 
cadence is interrupted by an inverted cadence in the key of the relative 
minor F sharp, and appears, instead, at the end of the extensions, bars 
90-91 (repeated in 92). 



* See Sonata XII, third movement, footnote f to (f). 

t See also Sonatas No. XVI, in C major, and No. XVIII, in D major. The 
first Minuet in Sonata IV, in E flat major, is written also in the key of the Domin- 
ant, but the construction of that sonata, taken as a whole, is altogether unusual. 

I Bertenshaw cites this subject as a good example of the varied ornamentation 
of a melody. It occurs six times during the movement, and is considerably varied 
at each recurrence. 

Percy Goetschius refers to these bars as forming a " coda, which assumes the 
nature of a mere extension." ("Lessons in Music Form.") 



SONATA NO. VI. 



37 



THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The " Tema " is written in a form which is neither wholly binary 
nor wholly ternary in design, but which partakes of the character of 
both. Stewart Macpherson* characterises it as "hybrid" in form and 
cites it as an example of a type of movement in which "the shape ap- 
proximates to the binary or two-part form, while the inherent idea con- 
tained therein is emphatically ternary or three-part." t He continues : 
" Notwithstanding the fact that this piece is divided by the double-bar 
into two nearly equal portions, leading one at first sight to class it as a 
two-part movement, the somewhat strongly-marked cadence at (a) 




emphasised as it is by the rests that follow and the very unmistak- 
able return to the opening phrase'*, at (b) are strong evidences of the 
ternary or three-part idea. On these grounds, the balance of probabili- 
ties is in favour of this latter classification, the characteristic features of 
divergence and recurrence (or retrospect) being clearly defined." 

(b) The first variation is characterised by triplets in the treble. 

(c) The second variation is worked entirely on the figures with which 
it opens in both bass and treble. 

(d) and (e) The third variation is characterised by the semiquaver 
movement in the treble, which movement is, in the fourth variation, trans- 
ferred to the bass. 

(f) The special feature to notice in the fifth variation is the slight 
working of the opening motive. This is, to a great extent, combined with 



* "Form in Music." 

t Percy Goetschius describes it as in " Incipient Ill-part Form." 
t It is interesting to note that in one Variation, No. X, the return is undoubt- 
edly made to the second and not to the first phrase of Part I. And in, at any rate, 
a couple of the others, viz., Nos. 7 and 12, there is some little uncertainty as to which 
of the two phrases the reference is intended; in No. 7 it is probably to the second. 



38 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

an accompaniment of thirds. The inversion of parts at the commence- 
ment of the last phrase (bars I3 3 -I5) should be noted. 

(g) In the sixth variation the melody, divided between the bass and 
treble, is accompanied throughout by the reiterated figure of a " broken " 
interval. The figure is invariably formed of three semiquavers follow- 
ing on a semiquaver rest. 

(h) Although, in music of the period, examples to the contrary can 
be found, more frequently, as in this set of variations, only one varia- 
tion was written in the minor mode. 

The chord D minor VI It 6 occurs both in bars 3 and 16; that of A 
minor VI G6 in bar 6; and in bar 10, the first inversion of the chromatic 
major chord on the mediant of D minor is followed by the chord of the 
Neapolitan sixth. 

(j) In the eighth variation the melody is in octaves. The phrases, 
commencing in bars 4 and 13, start with the parts inverted. 

(k) The ninth variation is characterised by almost constant synco- 
pation combined with imitation between the parts, both by similar and 
contrary motion. Note specially bars 4-6 and I2 3 -I5, in which there is 
strict imitation at the octave above; in bars 12-14, the imitation is by 
contrary motion. 

(1) The tenth variation is accompanied throughout by broken octaves. 
In this variation the return is undoubtedly made to the second phrase 
of Part I (see supra note J to a). 

(m) The eleventh variation marked "Adagio Cantabile" is, as the 
words imply, of a song-like character. As is usual in such cases, each 
part of the melody is greatly varied and ornamented at the repetition. 

The repetitions, therefore, are written out in full and the double-bar 
and repeat marks which have occurred both in the middle and at the end 
of the "Tema" and in each of the previous variations, are of course 
omitted, and only the one set of double-bars (without repeat marks) 
placed at the end.* 

(n) In the twelfth variation, marked " Allegro," both the time and 

* In reference to Mozart's variations on " Je suis Lindor," Prout writes : " The 
eleventh variation shows a special characteristic of Mozart's treatment of this form. 
In fourteen out of fifteen sets of variations from his pen (not counting those which 
are single movements of larger works, such as sonatas and quartets) we find one varia- 
tion adagio nearly always the penultimate variation of the set. The effect is to 
change the character of the theme, though its melodic and harmonic outlines are 
generally closely reproduced. These slow variations are always elaborately orna- 
mented, and are in many cases the most beautiful of the whole." (" Applied 
Forms.") 



SONATA NO. VI. 39 

the tempo are changed, the alteration from C to | time giving a lively 
character to this, the final variation. Both parts are repeated, each being 
greatly varied.* In Part II, the second phrase is twice lengthened by the 
introduction of an interrupted cadence causing cadential repetition. 
Bar 28 3 forms the chord of D major t?VI It 6 



Although the repetition of Part II can be distinctly traced in the last fifteen 
bars, it is so much modified that some are inclined to look upon these bars as 
''coda." 



SONATA No. VII* IN C MAJOR (K. 309), (a),f (1777). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 






Allegro consfinlo 

7= 



->- .L , : 




In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT " ALLEGRO COX SPIRITO/' IN C MAJOR. SONATA FORM, 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


I<REE FANTASIA. || RECAPITULATION. Bars. 


(b) First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition, 
(d) Second Subject in G 
major (Dominant), 
(e) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-211 

21-2-32 
(+33-34) 

35-541 

542-58 


(f) Bars 59-93. 


(g) First Subject in C 
major and C minor, 
(h) Bridge-p a s s a ge or 
Transition, 
(j) Second Subject with 
Codetta (in Tonic), 
(k) Coda (overlapping). 


94-1161 
116-2-128 

129-1521 
152-155 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE VN TOCO ADAGIO," IN F MAJOR (!VEY OF THE SUB- 
DOMINANT), (a) TERNARY FORM. 

_Bars. 

Part I 

(b) Melody in F major (Tonic) 1-16 



Repeated with ornamentations ... ... ... ... 1732 

(c) [Part II 

I Melody of 12 bars, in C major (Dominant) modulating back to F major. 

IPart III 

1 Repetition of 8 bars of Part I (in Tonic) slightly varied. 
Parts II and III repeated with florid ornamentation 

(d) Coda 



1-32 



33-44 
45-52 

53-761 
76-1-79 



* (i) This sonata was composed for Mile. Cannabich. 

(ii) The three Sonatas, Nos. 7, 8 and 9, appear in an early edition published in Paris by Heina as " Trois 
Senates pour le Clavecin ou le Forte Piano, par Wolfgang Amade Mozart " 
t See footnote * supra on page 27. 



SONATA NO. VII. 



THIRD MOVEMENT (a) RONDO, " ALLEGRETTO GRAZIOSO," IN C MAJOR. 



(b) Principal Subject (first entry) in Tonic 

(c) Bridge-passage or passage of Transition 

(d) Second Subject in G major (Dominant) 

jI 1. 39-2-57\ 
I 2. 58-771 J 

(e) Modulating passage, variously called Episode or Codetta 
Principal Subject (second entry) in Tonic, with slight ornamentation 

Link on the inverted Dominant Seventh in F major 

(f) Episode in F major (key of the Subdominant) modulating at the close 
through D minor to C major, the latter part thus forming a transi- 
tional passage leading to 

(g)** Recapitulation of Second Subject in the key of the Tonic 

This, like the preceding episode, ends with a transitional passage which 
leads to the 

Principal Subject (third entry) in Tonic, with slight ornamentation ... 
Recapitulation in the key of the Tonic of various passages previously 

heard in the Exposition 
(h) Codetta founded on Principal Subject 



Bars. 



1-191 
19^-391 
39-2-771 



772-92 
93-1111 
1112-115 



116-1421 
142-2-188 



189-2071 

207-244 
244-2-252 



J See footnote t supra on page 27. 

** When viewed from the standpoint of the Older Rondo Form, everything- lying between the second and 
third entries of the principal subject constitutes the second (the long) "episode. 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) Further investigations, made since KochePs " Chronological Cata- 
logue" was first published, have shown that this sonata was written in 
the year 1777 and not in 1778, though, even in the second edition of the 
above compilation, it is still included amongst the works composed in 
the later year. The alteration as to its position was not made for the 
following reasons : (i) because confusion might have arisen when refer- 
ring to earlier works on Mozart (Mozart-Literatur), especially to the 
" Gesamtausgabe"*; and (ii) because any such alteration might have en- 
tailed extensive re-numbering in the chronological portion O'f this work.f 

(b) The first subject consists of what is virtually an eight-bar melody, 
repeated overlapping, thus contracting the first appearance of the sentence 
to seven bars, whereas, on its repetition, the length is greatly extended 
(bars 8-2 1 1 ). According to Goetschius, the overlapping causes elision of 
the perfect cadence between bars 7 and 8. 



* It seems a great pity that editors of the pianoforte sonatas have not equally 
appreciated the benefit of uniform numbering (see Appendix). 

f See preface to the second edition of Kochel's " Chronological Catalogue," 
and also the note appended to the sonata itself (Xo. 309) in the same volume. 



42 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

The so-called "elision" of the cadence caused by the first measure of a new 
sentence overlapping the final cadence-measure of the previous one is a point to which 
it is well worth calling attention. Although one measure is actually missing, the 
icant of it is not apparent in the music, for, in the musical effect of the passage the 
one measure that in which the overlapping occurs fulfils the purpose of two. It 
gives the distinct impression, not only of forming the opening measure of the new 
sentence, but of absolutely and satisfactorily "clinching" the previous perfect 
cadence. And on account of this twofold nature, or character, in the one measure 
Prout will not permit the usa of the term " elision " to be applied in such cases, nor, 
in fact, does he allow that it is possible for any accented measure to be " elided." 
And Goetschius, who, in " Homophonic Forms," specifically quotes this passage as 
an example of "elision of the cadence," in his later work (''Lessons in Music 
Form ") when writing on the same point adds : " in a word, one measure is lost not 
in effect, for the elements of the expected cadence are all present but in the 
counting." 

(c) The transition commences with a series of freely sequential scale 
passages which modulate (bars 25-26) to G major. In this key there is a 
half-cadence, bar 32. The following two bars (33, 34) " poising on dom- 
inant harmony," as Banister expresses it, anticipate in the bass the 
rhythmic figures with which the opening portion of the second subject is 
accompanied.* 

(d) The second subject contains only one section (theme), a feature 
unusual in quick movements in sonata form. (See, however, third move- 
ment, Sonata II in F major, and first movement Sonata III in B flat 
major.) The construction of the last bar in the three-bar phrase (43-45) 
is interesting. Into it, by the process of " diminution," are contracted 
the first two bars of the second subject. The overlapping of the phrases 
in bar 46 should also be noted (see b, paragraph ii, supra]. 

(e) The figure of the codetta is possibly suggested by one in bar 11. 
Bars 56^58 are a variation of 54 2 -56 1 . 

(f) The free fantasia is founded principally on the first subject. It 
commences with the opening bars of the latter transposed into the key of 
G minor. In 61, the fragment from the previous bar is repeated in the 
bass with an imitative figure in the treble ; in 62., the foregoing bar is 
inverted. 

Bars 67-72, in the key of D minor, and modulating to A minor, 
form a modified repetition of the immediately preceding passage (59-66), 
which starts in G minor and modulates to D minor. Bars 73-74, in A 
minor, are repeated (75-76) in G minor, the four bars thus forming a real 
sequence. Bar 77 is in C major, but in 78, a return is made to A minor, 
in which key, after two and a half bars on an inversion of the super- 

* According; to Dr. Fisher these two bars form the opening bars of the second 
subject. 






SONATA NO. VII. 43 

tonic ninth, there is a full cadence (82), and a repetition of the codetta. 
Bars 86-89 reproduce 59-62 in the key of A minor, and the next four bars 
(90-93) are still another repetition of the same passage taken, in this 
instance, however, on the chord of the dominant seventh in C major, thus 
leading to the recapitulation, bar 94. 

(g) The middle section of the first subject reappears slightly length- 
ened and modified, and is in the key of the tonic minor instead of the 
major. The opening and closing portions of the subject are, however, 
exactly like the original. 

(h) The transition is modified so as to lead into the second subject 
in the key of the tonic. 

(j) With the exception that in the first phrase (bars 129-132) the 
parts are inverted, the second subject reappears in the key of the tonic 
with but slight alteration. 

(k) The coda refers to the first subject. It is possible that some 
analysers may consider that it commences with the repetition of the 
codetta four bars earlier.* 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) The form of this movement is based on the structure of a single 
minuet, t As, however, the parts are varied on repetition, they are written 
out on each occasion in full, and consequently the double bars with re- 
peat marks, characteristic of the typical minuet, are dispensed with. 

(b) This melody forms a sixteen-bar sentence of very regular and 
usual construction. It contains four four-bar phrases, of which the first 
and third, and the second and fourth, correspond very closely in 
melody. Moreover, the use of the half-cadence at the end of the second 
phrase is also of very frequent occurrence in such sentences, the latter 
part of the fourth the corresponding phrase, being, of course, modi- 
fied so as to end with a full cadence. 

(c) As in a minuet, Part II leads directly into Part III, after which 
both Part II and Part III are repeated. 

(d) The short coda* consists of cadential repetitions. 

* See Sonata X, first movement (k), page 65. 

t See Sonata IV, second movement (c), page 24, Bertenshaw considers this move- 
ment to be in two-part Song Form, with the first section given out four times instead 
of the usual twice. 

| Hadow (see " Sonata Form ") calls attention to the interesting fact that, in 
51 sonata, there is always a coda in slow movements written in a simple Ternary Form. 



44 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) See Sonata III, third movement (Rondo) a, page 17. In this Rondo, 
as in the one above-mentioned, the first part (i.e., up to the end of the 
second entry of the principal subject, bar 1 1 1) resembles that of a Sonata- 
Rondo (see Thematic Scheme). In comparing these two movements it 
is interesting to note that, in the later one, not only the second melody, 
but the preceding modulating passage also, have grown both in dimen- 
sions and importance. 

The chief structural difference between this movement and a Rondo 
of the fully-developed form is the absence of the third entry of the 
principal subject* at the end of the episode (bars 116-142) where the 
music returns definitely to the key of the tonic. Here, instead of 
returning to the principal subject, the recapitulation commences by 
reproducing the passages which, in the exposition, occurred in the key 
of the dominant ; and on this account they can therefore be considered 
as a second subject. f It is only after the repetition of these passages 
that the third entry of the principal subject occurs, thus occupying the 
position which, in a normal Sonata-Rondo, would be filled by either a 
fourth entry of the same subject, or by a coda. 

Analysing the movement on the basis of the older form of Rondo, 
the episode commencing in bar 116 now constituting the second or 
"long" episode* will not end in bar 142, as in the type of Rondo 
detailed above, but will continue to bar 188. It thus embraces the whole 
of what has there been described as the recapitulation of the second 
subject in this form, a repetition of the principal portion of Episode 7. 

According to this analysis, therefore, the position of the third entry 
of the principal subject is normal, the unusual feature being the repro- 
duction, later in the movement, of a great proportion of the first episode 
in the key of the tonic a trait characteristic of the more highly-wrought 
design. 

(b) The principal subject consists of a sixteen-bar sentence prolonged 
by cadential repetition to nineteen bars. The overlapping of the phrases 
in bar 16 should be noted (see movement I (b), paragraph ii). 

* On account of the absence of the Principal Subject at this point, Percy 
Goetschius refers to the form of the movement as being an "abbreviation" of the 
regular Sonata-Rondo form. 

f At this point the structure of the movement resembles that of a Sonata-Alle- 
gro, in which the Second Subject is recapitulated (exceptionally) before the first 
subject. 

| In this case it is unusually long. 



SONATA NO. VII. 45 

(c) The transition ends on a half -cadence in the tonic, bar 39. The 
passage, bars 272-39, is a modified and lengthened repetition of the first 
eight bars. Note that the parts in bars 32-33 are inverted in 34-35. 

(d) The second subject is divided into two sections, the first ending 
in bar 57 on the repeated chord of G major V[> 9 , the second section 
commencing in the following bar with the melody transferred to the 
bass.* Bars 43" 2 -47 are in sequence, in che treble, to 39" 2 -43- The second 
section consists of two sentences. The first contains three phrases; the 
second, a modified repetition of the first, starting in G minor instead of 
G major, is curtailed to two phrases. 

(e) This passage forms a connecting episode between the second 
subject and the re-entry of the principal subject. It modulates from 
G major to C major, ending on the dominant seventh in the latter key. 

(f) This episode consists of an eight-bar melody which, on repetition, 
is modified and lengthened by a passage modulating through D minor 
to C major (the tonic). It is preceded by an introductory link (111-115) 
founded on figures from the second subject, and it ends, like a Free 
Fantasia, on the dominant harmony in the key of the tonic, thus leading 
directly into the recapitulation t (bar I42 2 ). The final bars are a modi- 
fication of bars 48-52 in the second subject. 

(g) The close of this subject varies considerably from the original 
close. Instead of ending on a full cadence, as in the first instance, it 
merges here into a transitional passage which terminates on the dominant 
seventh in C major. A link of two bars leads into the third entry of the 
principal subject.J 

(h) The codetta, founded on the principal subject, is written over a 
tonic pedal with a combination of the plagal and the perfect cadences. 

Banister calls these bars "Codetta," a term more appropriate to the character 
of the passage than would be the usual word, " Coda." It is very possible, however, 
that there may be a difference of opinion as to where this final section of the move- 
ment should be considered to commence, and some may mark it as starting in bar 
221, in which case the section would, of course, be called coda. 



* The reiterated broken octaves in the treble of these bars cannot be called an in- 
verted pedal, because the only chords employed in the passage are those of the tonic 
and dominant, to both of which the note " D " belongs. 

t The recapitulation of the Second Subject, not the Principal Subject. 

| On the whole, the balance of opinion seems in favour of classifying this move 
ment as a" simple rondo," in which the episodes are loinig, and where the second, 
the " long episode," besides new material, contains a repetition of the greater por- 
tion of the first episode with change of tonality, and some slight development. 



SONATA No. VIII IN A MINOR (K. 310), (1778). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



All'gro maestoso 

u I -jm m~;~m~i 






= 





In three movements. 



FIIIST MOVEMENT " ALLEGRO MAESTOSO," IN A MINOR, SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 



(a) t First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (overlap- 
ping). 

(c) Second Subject in C 

major (relative maior). 

(d) f First sect'n 22-3-351 \ 

(e) (Second 35-451) 

(f) Codetta. 

Double bar and repeat. 



Bars. 



1-91 
9-222 
22-3-451 
45-49 



FREE FANTASIA. 
(g)~Bars 50-79. 



RECAPITULATION. 



First Subject in Tonic. 
(h) Bridge-p assage or 

Transition overlapping; 

(varied and slightly 

lengthened). 
(j) Second Subject in 

Tonic. 

/First section 103-3-1161. \ 
I Second section 116-1291. j 
(k) Codetta in Tonic. 



Bars. 



80-881 

88-1032 
103-3-1291 
129-133 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE CANTABILE CON ESPRESSIONE," IN F MAJOR 
(KEY OF THE SUBMEDIANT MAJOR), (a) SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(b; First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (with link). 

(d) Second Subject in C 
major (Dominant), 
(e) Codetta, 
(f) Double bar and repeat. 


To 81 
82-151 

15-291 
29-1-312 


(g) 
(i) Passage 
founded on 
First Subject, 
313-371. 
(ii) Episode. 
37-2-532. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered), 
(h) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (with link 
modified), 
(j) Second Subject (in 
Tonic), (slightly modi- 
fied and lengthened). 
Codetta. 


533-611 
612-681 

68-841 
84-1-86 



* See Sonata VII, footnote * (ii) to the Thematic Scheme, 
t See footnote * supra on page 27. 

** All authorities agree as to the character and purpose of the two passages, bars 21-28 and bars 87-106. 
Some, however, broadly include them as forming- part of the episode itself, and analyse the latter as extending 

Others, however, 
29-871 (see c and f). 

... _ .. all similar passages 

in other movements. (See Thematic Scheme of third movement on nest page.) 



me, nowever, oroaaiy mcmae tnem as lorming pan oi tne episode itself, and analyse the 1 
from bar 21 to bar 106, and commencing and ending with these connecting passages, etc. 
analyse them as " outside " the episode, and consider the latter to extend only from bar 29- 
The same remarks apply also to the link (bars 111-115) in the finale of Sonata VII, and to a 



(h) 

U) 



P 
K 3 I 



SONATA NO. VIII. 
THIRD MOVEMENT " PRESTO," IN A MINOR, (a) RONDO. 

(b) Principal Subject (first entry) in Tonic 

Long modulating passage consisting of 

(c) (i) 8 bars in C major (relative major) ending on" 

half-cadence, leading to 

(d) (ii) a variation of the Principal Subject in C minor, 
and C major, greatly lengthened, and with fre- 
quent allusions in the latter portion to the key of 1 
D minor; the passage modulates finally to the key 

of E minor, in which it ends on a half-cadence inj> = Episode I*' 
bar 63, and leads to a 

^e) Melody (forming Second Subject) in E minor 
(Dominant minor) also a variation, taken by in- 
version, of the Principal Subject 

(f) Connecting passage, overlapping, variously called 
Episode or Codetta, leading to ... ... ..., 

(g) Principal Subject (second entry) in Tonic, followed by a modified 
reproduction of a portion of the previous Episode transposed into 
the key of the Tonic 

DOUBLE BAB. 

Episode in A major (Tonic major) in a " Hybrid " Form.J ... 
(A. New melody in A major modulating to E major (Dominant). 

Double, bar and repeat. 
B. Eight bars modulating sequentially through B minor to A major and 

leading to 

A 2 . Repetition of a portion of the first sentence (i.e., the second of four 
phrases) modified so as to close with a full cadence in the Tonic. 

Double bar and repeat. 

Principal Subject (third entry) in Tonic (unaltered) ... 
(k) Passage of Transition 
(1) Second Subject in Tonic (modified) 
(m) Coda 



47 



Bars. 

1-20 
21-63 



64-871 
87-106 

107-142 
143-174 



175-194 
195-202 
203-225 
226-252 



** See footnote ** on pi-evious page. 
J See Sonata VI, third movement (a), prxge 37. 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

See Sonata XIV, first movement (a), Par. ii. 

(a) The first subject is an eight-bar sentence prolonged to nine by 
the sequential repetition of a motive in the second phrase. The first 
phrase is written entirely on a tonic pedal, over a continuation of which 
the second phrase opens. 

(b) The transition overlapping the first subject, on which it is prin- 
cipally founded, starts as though that subject were commencing again. 
After three bars, however, it modulates to F major; thence momentarily 
touching the keys of D major and C major to C minor, in which key 



4 8 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



it ends on a half -cadence (bar 22). The second subject is thus 
approached through the tonic minor of its own key. (See also first 
movement Sonatas No. XII and XV, both in F major.) 

(c) The second subject is in C major (relative major). It is of in- 
terest to note that in his only other sonata in the minor mode, viz., No. 
14, in C minor, Mozart has also written the second subject in the key 
of the relative major.* 

(d) Note the melodic sequence in the opening bars of the second 
subject (23-25); and the sequence in all parts, bars 28-29. 

(e) The special point to notice in the second section of this subject 
is in the repetition of the melody, bars 40-45, the greater part of which 
is inverted. 

(f) The figures of the codetta are derived in the treble, from the 
opening bar of the movement, and in the bass, from a figure in the tran- 
sition, bar ii. 

(g) After the first few bars, the Free Fantasia is worked entirely 
on two two-bar sections, the greater portion being developed from the 
opening bars of the first subject,! and the latter part being founded on 
bars 4i 4 -43 1 in the second subject. 

It commences with the first phrase of the first subject transposed 
into the key of C major, modulating, in bar 53, apparently to F major. 
The tonality of the next few bars is, however, vague, the music seeming 
to waver between the keys of F major and D minor. The chord which, 
in bars 53 and 54, appears as the last inversion of the dominant minor 
ninth in F major is, in bar 55, enharmonically changed to the first inver- 
sion of the dominant ninth in D minor. The reason for this alteration 
in notation is obscure, for the latter chord, like both the others, again 
resolves on the dominant seventh in F major. By a further enharmonic 
change the last-named chord becomes, in bar 57, the German sixth in 
E minor, and thus effects a modulation into that key. A most interesting 
passage commences in the following bar. It forms a real sequence, the 



* Banister cannot recall any case of a second subject in the dominant minor 
key prior to Beethoven. This remark is rendered the more interesting when read 
in conjunction with one of Prout's. In speaking of composers prior to Mozart and 
Haydn, he says : " With movements in a minor key, we find in the older sonata form 
(as in the Suite forms from which it was developed) that the relative major and the 
dominant minor are about equally common as keys for the Second Subject." Later 
on he adds: "Haydn and Mozart almost invariably introduce their second subject 
in the relative major key." (" Applied Forms.") 



f Hadow remarks that this device, i.e., the 
comparatively rare before Beethoven. 



working " of a small figure, is 



SONATA NO. VIII. 49 

" pattern " of which is four bars in length.* This is worked with 
suspensions on the figures derived from the first subject and is written 
throughout on successive dominant pedal points. It lasts twelve bars 
and passes through the keys of E minor (58-61), A minor (62-65), an< ^ 
D minor (66-/O 1 ). N.B. The only alteration in the "quality" of the 
intervals occurs between the last two notes. 

The remainder of the section is developed from the two bars of 
the second subject. Bars 70-72 form a descending sequence in which 
the figures appear in the treble to an accompaniment derived from 
the bass of the codetta. The sequence modulates from C major to A 
minor, on a half -cadence, in which key, VI F 6 V, the section closes, bar 
79. In bars 74-78 1 , the figures are taken in the bass. A chromatic 
run (79), forms a link between the free fantasia and the recapitulation. 




. zr^aak^-gr-f - nrt: rtjaizr-.ri 

-IP-J^ f Vfrrfcr 



Bertenshaw quotes the above extract, in reference to which he remarks : "It will 
be interesting to note the origin of this. The fragment (d) is clearly the first three 
notes of (a) [= the first three notes of the movement]. By breaking up the crotchet 
in (d) into a dotted quaver and a semiquaver we get the rhythmic figure j- L '''|"14 

which is the foundation of the remainder of extract (c). The fragments (e) and (f) 
are merely variations of (d) ; they retain the rhythmic figure, at the same time being 
greatly modified in melodic outline and in harmony. The third and fourth bars of 
(c) are free sequential imitations of the second bar."f 

(h) The first part of the transition reappears inverted and varied, 
its opening bars are founded on the first subject and are not, as in the 
first instance, a repetition of them. It is also slightly lengthened and 
modified so as to end in the key of the tonic. 

* Sequences in which the pattern is four bars in length are of comparatively 
rare occurrence. Still more rarely do we meet with one in which, as in this instance, 
there is more than the one repetition of the pattern. 

t " Rhythm, Analysis, and Musical Form," p. 356. T. H. Bertenshaw, B.A , B.Mus. 

5 



50 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(j) The second subject reappears in the tonic and in the original 
minor* not in the major mode. 

Note the chord of the Neapolitan sixth in A minor, bars 109 and 
119; also the inversion of the chromatic chord of the supertonic ninth 
in the same key, bar 127. 

(k) There is no coda. The movement ends with the original codetta 
transposed into the key of the tonic. 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) Though, generally speaking, it is unusual to find the slow move- 
ment in sonatas in " unabridged sonata form," there are several examples 
to be found in those written by Mozart for the pianoforte (see Sonatas 
I, V, XIII and XV ; also second movement, Sonata II e (ii), page 1 1 ; and 
note to Thematic Scheme, Sonata III). 

(b) The first subject is an eight-bar sentence, of which the first 
phrase ends on a half -cadence, bar 4, and the second a modified repeti- 
tion of the first on a full cadence, bar 8. 

(c) The transition does not leave the key of the tonic but ends in it on 
a half -cadence on the dominant, on which chord taken as the tonic of the 
new key\ the second subject enters in the following bar. Bars IO 2 -I2 1 
are a varied repetition of the previous two bars. 

(d) The second subject consists of one sentence, much prolonged by 
cadential repetitions. In bars 17-18 the melody of the previous two bars 
is transferred to the tenor underneath a sustained shake on the dominant 
in the treble. Bars 22-25 1 are a cadential repetition of the responsive 
phrase with, however, a fresh commencement. Bars 25-29 1 form another 
and still more modified repetition of the same. 

Note the incidental modulation to D minor, bars 23 and 26, and the 
free inversion of the parts in bar 27. 

(e) These three bars are marked "codetta" because, after a careful 
comparison of various similar passages and of the views of different 
authorities thereon, the balance of opinion would seem to be in favour 
of thus separating them from the second subject. The combination of 
a tonic pedal with more or less transient modulation to the key of the 

* Banister, in "Lectures on Musical Analysis," says that in movements in the 
minor mode Mozart usually made his second subject reappear in the original minor 
and not in the tonic major, and " in all cases with indescribable change of impres- 
sion and inviting attention to the harmonising under new conditions." 

t Mozart makes frequent use of this method. 



SONATA NO. VIII. 51 

subdominant is often incidental to both the coda and the codetta; and, 
too, the end of the second subject is often determined by the presence 
of a shake, accompanying the final cadence (see bar 28). Yet, in spite 
of the reasons just given, in this instance there seems to be no real need 
to make this division. The three bars contain but a reiterated repetition 
of the final cadence, and, moreover, in the recapitulation, the second 
subject concludes with a repetition of them in practically identical form 
though of course with change of key. 

(f) See Sonata I, second movement (f), page 4. 

(g) Part II of this movement consists almost entirely of an episode, 
which commences, in bar 37, after a short passage reminiscent of the first 
subject. This passage, starting in C major, ends with a perfect cadence 
in the tonic minor. The episode is worked on figures derived from the 
opening figure of the transition (*bars S 2 ^ 1 ) accompanied throughout by 
triplets of semiquavers. It opens in C minor (37) and passes through 
G minor (38-39) to D minor (40), in which key, in bar 43, the previous 
parts are inverted; thence it continues, incidentally touching the keys 
of F major (44-45), D minor (46-47), C minor (47-48), and G minor 
(48-49), to F major, in which key after the parts have been re-inverted 
the section ends on a half-cadence t?VI It 6 V (52-53). Note the chord 
of D minor VI G 6 , bar 42; and the chromatic chord, F major ll[, 9b , bar 51. 

(h) The transition reappears modified. It commences like the ori- 
ginal passage but modulates in the second bar (62) to B flat major, 
thence (in 64) to G minor, returning to the key of F major in the last 
bar only (67). . 

(j) The second subject reappears in the key of the tonic slightly 
modified and lengthened. In bar 70, it modulates to B flat major, the 
repetition of the opening bars appearing in that key instead of in the 
tonic. After the return to the tonic (bar 75) the close of the movement 
is a slightly modified repetition of the corresponding portion of the 
exposition. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) See Sonata III, third movement fRondo) a, page 17. Like the 
Rondo above-mentioned and the finale of Sonata VII, this movement com- 
bines certain features of sonata form with the older type of rondo (see 

* The connection between these figures is interesting and can easily be recog- 
nised by starting the broken chord of C minor in the melody of bar 37 an octave 
lower, and carrying it in semiquavers over two octaves. 



52 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

Thematic Scheme). In order to gain a clear conception of the plan of 
the movement the best method seems to be to analyse it as a " simple 
rondo," at the same time carefully noting the modifying features. 

Thus viewed the whole of the modulating portion of the movement 
between the first and second entries of the principal subject forms one 
long episode, a part of which is reproduced, towards the end of the 
Rondo, in the key of the tonic. The episode commences and ends with 
passages which serve, as connecting links with the principal subject (see 
note ** to Thematic Scheme), and on this subject it is, for a great part, 
founded. 

When viewing the movement from the other standpoint, the fol- 
lowing interesting detail is brought more prominently into notice. The 
portion of the Exposition, analysed above as Episode I, contains two 
variations of the principal subject. The first, in the keys of C minor 
and C major, commences bar 29; the second, in the key of E minor, in 
bar 64; and it is the latter of these variations which, in the exposition, 
constitutes the second subject. In the recapitulation, however, this subject 
is formed by a commingling of the two variations. For whilst repro- 
duced with the details of accompaniment which, in the exposition, are 
associated with the second variation,* the transposed melody itself is a 
reproduction of the first. t 

(b) The principal subject is a sixteen-bar sentence, in four-bar 
rhythm, prolonged to twenty bars by cadential repetition. The second 
phrase ends on a half-cadence, bar 8; the fourth, with an interrupted 
cadence, bar 16, and, on its repetition, with a full cadence, bar 20. 

(c) This forms a link, or passage of transition, leading to the first 
episode. 

(d) Analysing the movement on the basis of that of the older type 
of Rondo, this melody forms the first portion of Episode I. When 
viewing the movement from the other standpoint, however (see a, par. 3), 
it cannot be considered as a first section of the second subject though, 
at first sight, it looks as if it might be so. In the first place, the key in 
which it starts the mediant minor would be very irregular; and a 
second irregularity would be that the four-bar phrase, bars 52-55 (though 
afterwards repeated in A minor, the tonic) -first reappears in the recapitu- 
lation in D minor the same key in which it appears in the exposition. 
The sequential character of the whole of this passage, as of the greater 

* The melody is taken by inversion and in octaves, etc., etc. 
f I.e., the principal portion of it. 



SONATA NO. VIII. 53 

portion of the movement, should be noted. Bars 56-57, in D minor, and 
58-59, in E minor, form a real sequence. 

(e) This passage, when considered as a second subject, is unusual 
both in key and contents. In key, because in movements in the minor 
mode in regular Rondo-Sonata form, the second subject is always in the 
relative major* In its contents, it is unusual, because they include no 
fresh musical idea whatever. For, not only does the passage commence 
with a variation of the principal subjectt here also taken with inversion 
of parts but, too, its continuation is founded entirely on a -previous 
passage, transposed into the key of the dominant minor.* Looking upon 
the foregoing, however, as the continuation of an episode in simple 
Rondo form, the above-mentioned points, though of interest to note, 
cannot be termed exceptional. 

(f) Note the sequence in the bass and inner part in the first eight 
bars of this passage, which ends on a half-cadence, A minor VI It 6 ,V. 
Note also the chord of the Neapolitan sixth in the previous passage (75). 

(g) The close of the exposition is exceptional. Instead of ending 
with the second entry of the principal subject, the latter leads without 
break into a modified reproduction, in the key of the tonic, of a portion 
of the previous episode. This is the only instance of the kind to be 
found in Mozart's pianoforte sonatas. 

(h) See " Tema," Sonata VI, third movement (a), page 37. Although 
the essential characteristics of the "ternary" idea, viz., "divergence and 
recurrence," are not so clearly defined here .as in the above-mentioned 
Tema, yet indications of both are so far evident that it seems perfectly 
consistent to describe this episode as an example of a similar Hybrid 
form. That is to say the musical idea is ternary, though the shape in 
which it is clothed closely resembles the binary. For though the 
" return " is not to the first phrase^ yet it is to the first half of Part /, 

* Prout points out the interesting fact that ''Beethoven, who made many in- 
novations as to the key of the second subjects in his Sonata movements, never tried 
similar experiments in his Rondos." (See " Applied Forms.") 

f Such a commencement for a second subject is not in itself unusual with the 
earlier classical composers, who frequently founded the first portion of the second 
subject on the first subject. 

\ This also is taken by inversion. 

Hadow refers to this movement as an example of one in which Mozart makes 
" noticeable experiments of detail." 

|| The nature of a "return " to Part I is one of the characteristics that differ- 
entiate between the Binary and the Ternary Pornis. A "return" to the opening 
phrase is essential to the latter, whilst one to the final phrase only whether to the 
whole or merely a portion of it marks the Binary. 



54 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

i.e., to the second phrase of four. And the reappearance of the tonic 
pedal with which it is accompanied helps to strengthen the feeling of 
return to the opening portion of the melody. For the pedal, over which 
the first three phrases of Part I are written, is discontinued under the 
fourth the final one. 

(j) This episode is in the tonic major and starts with a fresh melody. 
It is, however, most interesting to note how intimately it is connected 
with Episode I. Compare the phrases, bars 147-150, and bars 25-28. 

(k) This passage starts in D minor and modulates to A minor, 
passing transiently through E major; bars 195-198 thus form a short 
modulating sequence. The points of similarity and contrast between 
this passage and the earlier one (bars 21-28) should be noted. 

(1) See (a), Par. 3. The latter portion of the recapitulation of the 
second subject is a slightly modified repetition of the corresponding 
portion of the original passage. 

(m) The coda refers entirely to Episode I. See (a), Par. 2. 



SONATA No. IX* IN D MAJOR (K. 311), (1778). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 

A Ilegro con spirito ^ , , ' 

lfe^=P^=t2E^^-feSs 









In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT " AL 
EXPOSITION. 

a)f First Subject in Tonic, 
b) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (overlap- 
ping), 
(c) Second Subject in A 
major (Dominant), 
[d) (First sect'n 164- 241 1 
^ \Second 24-1-361) 
(f) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat 


LEGRO CON SPIRITO," IN D MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 
Bars. FREE FANTASIA. RECAPITULATION. Bars. 


1-71 

7-163 
lC-t-361 



36-39 


(g) Bars 40-783. 


(h) Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
/ First section 784-863. ) 
(Second section 87-99LJ 
(j) First Subject in Tonic 
overlapping). 

(k) Coda. 


784-991 

99-1051 
105-112 



SECOND MOVEMENT" ANDANTE CON ESPRESSIONE," IN G MAJOR (KEY OF THE 
SUBDOMINANT). (a) OLD RONDO FORM. 



(b) Principal Subject (first entry) 

Double bar and repeat (at end of bar 11). 

(c) Link 

(d) Episode I 

(i) New melody in D major (Dominant) 16^-24^ 

(ii) Second portion commencing with a reference to Principal Sub- j- 

ject 25-38 j 

Principal Subject (second entry) slightly varied 

(e) Link of two bars 

Episode II: melodies from Episode I repeated in G major (Tonic) ... 
<f) Principal Subject (third entry) lengthened, and again slightly varied 



Bars. 



1-121 

122-161 
162-38 



39-501 
502-521 
522-74 

75-93 



* See Sonata VII, note * (ii) to Tabulated Scheme. 

t These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 
text. 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT- 
EXPOSITION. 


RONDO, 
Bars. 


"ALLEGRO," IND 
EPISODE. 


MAJOR. 
Bars. 


(a) SONATA RONDO 
RECAPITULATION. 


FORM. 
Bars. 


(b) Principal Subject 
in Tonic (first 




(g) Bridge or Trans- 
itional passage. 


102-118 


Principal Subject in 
Tonic (third en- 




entry). 


To 161 


(h) New Melody in 




try). 


1732-1891 


(c) Passage of Trans- 




the keys of B 




(j) Passage of Trans- 




ition. 


16-40 


minor and G 




ition. 


1892-205 


Second Subject 




major. 


119-1541 


Second Subject 




in A major 




Bridge or Trans- 




i 11 D major 




(Dominant). 


41-791 


itional passage 




(Tonic). 


206-2461 


(d) jI 1. 41-56.) 




and Cadenza. 


154-173 


f 1. 206-221 \ 




(e) f 2. 56-791. j" 








( 2. 221-2461 J 




Link, modulating 








Link leading to 


246-2501 


and leading to 


79-85 


Double bar. 








<f) Principal Sub- 








(k) Coda. 


2502-271 


ject in Tonic 












(second entry). 


862-1021 











+ The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is only seven bars in length. It is an eight- 
bar sentence contracted to seven by overlapping of the two phrases in 
bar 4.* 

(b) The transition overlaps the first subject. In bar 1 1 the semi- 
quaver figures are transferred to the treble. The passage is entirely in 
the key of the tonic, in which it ends on a half -cadence, bar i6.t 

(c) The second subject, in the key of A major (the dominant), is 
divided into two sections, each ending with a perfect cadence. 

(d) The first section is an eight-bar sentence consisting of two four- 
bar phrases, the second of which is a modified repetition of the first, 
altered so as to close on a full, instead of on a half, cadence. 

(e) The second section is of great importance, as the principal portion 
of it (28 2 -36 1 ) appears in the Free Fantasia transposed en masse into the 
key of G major. 

The opening four bars (24-28 1 ) consist simply of repetitions of one 
motive. 



* See (b), paragraph ii, first movement, Sonata VII, page 42. 

t Bertenshaw evidently considers that there is no specific passage of transition 
in this movement, but that the first subject continues to bar 16. See his analysis of 
the Free Fantasia of the movement ("Rhythm, Analysis and Musical Form'"), in 
which he speaks of the last thirteen bars as being founded on this passage, but refers 
to it as " a part of the first subject " (cf. Sonata I, first movement (b), page 2^. 



SONATA NO. IX. 57 

Starting in the left hand part this motive, though always containing 
the same notes, is sounded at each repetition at a different pitch. In 
bar 26 the parts are inverted, but by their crossing in 27 they become 
re-inverted. 

Bars 28 2 -36 1 , above referred to, form a melody in two-bar rhythm 
in which not only are the third and fourth phrases a repetition of the 
first and second; but all four phrases commence alike with the same 
opening three notes. 

(f) Bars 38-39 form part of a small, but very important, codetta. 
They are founded on the slurred quavers in bar 29 and form the source 
from which the first eighteen bars of the Free Fantasia are developed. 

(g) As just mentioned, the Free Fantasia starts with eighteen bars 
developed from the codetta*; in this passage imitation appears in nearly 
every bar. Bars 44-47, in D major, are in sequence to the previous four 
bars which are in E minor, and bars 50-5 1 are freely sequential to 48-49, 
the music modulating to B minor, in which key, after incidentally touch- 
ing G major, there is a perfect cadence in bar 5 5-1" ^ n 5^"57 ^ modulates 
definitely to G major, into which key the greater part of the second 
section of the second subject now appears transposed (bars 58-66 1 ). The 
remainder of the development is derived from the transition,! the last 
few bars being identical; the rhythm in the bass of the earlier portion 
of this passage, however (bars 66, etc.) is probably suggested by that in 
bar 36. Note the chord of the augmented sixth in B minor, bar 52. 

(h) A noteworthy feature of this movement as regards its form, is 
the exceptional recapitulation of the second subject before the first. The 
modulation to the tonic minor (bars 83-86) should be noted, and also 
that here the first section of the second subject ends on a half -cadence 
in the minor, approached through the chord of the augmented sixth, 
instead of on a full cadence in the major, as in the exposition. Still 
another point which differs in the recapitulation of this subject is that 
there is an interval of nearly half a bar between the two sections. In the 
bass this interval is filled by a link of a few notes. 



* Vide first movement of previous sonata, footnote f to (g), page 48. 

t The tonality of a portion of the preceding passage is vague. Dr Fisher con- 
siders bar 48 to be in A major : 50. in B minor ; and 51, in F sharp minor. But 
although the G sharp (48 4 ), followed by the chord of the dominant seventh, in A 
major (49 1 - 2 ) may suggest this key, and corresponding indications in 50-51 may 
suggest F sharp minor, in neither instance is there any definite modulation to the 
suggested key. 

I See supra note f to (b). 



58 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(j) The first subject reappears immediately after the second subject, 
overlapping it. 

(k) The short coda ends with a repetition of the final bars of the 
exposition, transposed into the key of the tonic. 

SECOND MOVEMENT.. 

(a) An interesting feature as regards the form of this movement is 
that it can consistently be classified under more than one head; it follows 
naturally that in neither case will it be an absolutely regular example. 

Classified in the older rondo form (as in the accompanying Thematic 
Scheme*) the irregularity is, that the second episode is not new but is a 
repetition of the first one in another key, viz., in that of the tonic (see 
also Rondo Polonaise, Sonata VI). Apropos of this, however, Berten- 
shaw remarks that " the object of an episode is to give variety, and this 
is sufficiently attained here by means of key contrast'' 

On the other hand Goetschius classifies the form as an " augmenta- 
tion of the sonatine-form."t He considers that when bar 74 is reached 
" the regular sonatine-design has been achieved fully though concisely "" 
and regards the last nineteen bars as a " superfluous recurrence of the 
principal theme " added in the place of the customary coda. (" Lessons in 
Music Form.") 

(b) The principal subject is an eight-bar sentence, extended, by 
cadential repetitions, to bar 12. 

(c) These bars start in E minor and modulate to D major and A 
major, the tonic chord of A,+ however, being immediately quitted as the 
dominant in D major, in which key Episode I occurs. 

(d) This episode commences with a new melody which, however, 
after eight bars, gives place to a return to the opening of the principal 
subject, now in the key of D major (bar 25). Bars 27-8 are an inver- 
sion of 25-26. Bars 29-32, repeated slightly modified in 33-36, form a 
short sequential passage, with transient modulation through B minor, 

* The author decides to retain her original analysis of this movement as in Older 
Rondo Form in the Thematic Scheme, because out of four further analyses of it 
with which she has met, two viz., those by T. H. Bertenshaw and Ridley Prentice 
are in agreement with this classification. 

f Dr. H. Fisher designates it "modified sonata form." ("The Musical 
Examiner.") 

| See Sonata III, third movement, footnote to (k), page 20. 

Bertenshaw draws attention to the fact that it is by no means uncommon in 
an episode to find a reference to the principal subject. (" Rhythm, Analysis and 
Musical Form.") 



SONATA NO. IX 59 

G major and E minor back to D major,* and lead to a full cadence in D, 
bar 38, with which this episode closes. 

(e) The previous link (bars 12-16) is repeated here, but contracted 
to two bars. It consists of the chord of the Italian sixth resolving on 
to the chord of the dominant in G major. 

(f) At the final entry the principal subject is varied by further orna- 
mentation, and is considerably lengthened by cadential repetitions. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The form of this Rondo is planned throughout on that of the 
newer type ; it is of interest to note that this is the first movement in these 
sonatas which is definitely in this form.f 

(b and c) Earlier in the work we pointed out that a special interest 
attaches to Mozart's Rondos owing to the fact that, with him, this form 
is in a state of evolution. It can be readily understood that this same 
fact, which adds so greatly to the interest of the work of the student of 
construction, at the same time increases his difficulties, inasmuch as it 
tends also to add to the number of possible methods in which the con- 
tents of each rondo can be analysed. One of the difficulties which 
hitherto has presented itself, viz., the possibility of considering the Rondo 
from the two standpoints either that of the older, or that of the newer, 
type is absent in this instance, the form being clearly that of the newer 
type. The difficulties in this movement arise from the fact that it is 
possible for certain passages and bars to be viewed in more than one 
way ; and, of these passages, perhaps the most important is that from bar 
1 6 to bar 26. 

This has been variously analysed : 

(i) As a continuation of the principal subject in which case the 
latter would end in bar 26; 

(ii) As the commencement of the transition in which case the 
principal subject would end in bar 16; 

(iii) As partly principal subject, and partly the transition, the first 
eight bars being taken as a continuation of the former which would 

* Prout applies the term, "transitional dominants" to the dominant sevenths 
in similar series of dominant sevenths and tonic harmonies, i.e., where the new 
tonic chords are also chords in the previously established key. 

f We may here call attention to the fact that, as a rule, in sonatas, it is only the 
Finale which is ever written in the Sonata-Rondo Form. Where a first, or midc'Ie, 
movement is a Rondo, it is always in the form of the older, and simpler type. See, how- 
ever, the slow movement in Schumann's String Quintet On. 44. 



60 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

thus end in bar 24. whilst the final two bars are considered as the com- 
mencement of the transition. 

Naturally arguments are brought forward both for and against each 
of the above analyses, and it is evident that, no matter to which one of 
the views we incline, some passage or passages during the course of the 
movement will inevitably appear either unusual or irregular. 

Of the three, we prefer the analysis at ii (see also Thematic Scheme) 
which is the one given by Mr. Hadow* and Dr. Fisher. Against this, the 
argument may be advanced that, whilst the reiterated perfect cadences in 
the key of the tonic, with which the passage in question closes, render its 
whole character inconsistent with that of a transition, they are at the 
same time eminently characteristic of the close of a principal subject. 
On the other hand, however, Hadow calls attention to the fact that 
in Mozart's time, the principal subject of a Rondo usually consisted of 
"one clean-cut lyric stanza" only, and, moreover, that Mozart himself not 
infrequently began his transitions with a passage in the tonic. As an 
instance of such treatment, he quotes the Rondo of the Sonata in C major 
(No. VII), in which movement there can be no doubt as to the point at 
which the principal subject ends and the transition commences. t 

And again, if we once realise that it is possible for the passage in 
question to form a portion of the transition, the construction of the 
remainder of the Rondo becomes clear, and we find that it is perfectly 
regular. Whereas no matter whether we incline to the view that the 
principal subject ends in bar 24, or in bar 26 further difficulties and 
irregularities as to construction will appear during the course of the 
movement (see infra f). 

Of these last two views, however, we prefer the latter, and for the 
following reasons. 

(i) Although, on account of the third of the tonic chord being in the 
highest voice, the cadence, in bars 24 2 -26 1 , is rendered rather indefinite, 
still the contents of these bars form but another repetition of the 
perfect cadence in the key of the tonic and they are therefore intimately 
connected with the perfect cadence which has immediately preceded 
them. On the other hand, not only do they bear no particular reference 
to the passage which follows (the commencement of the transition, accord- 
ing to the view we are now supporting) but, by the process of elimina- 
tion, the responsive phrase in the latter passage (commencing bar 3O 2 ) 

* Mr. Hadow considers that the analysis at (i) belongs rather to a first-move- 
ment form than to a Rondo. 

t Viz., in bar 19. 



SONATA NO. IX. 6 1 

tends to prove that they do not form a part of the transition at all. For, 
if the transition is considered to start immediately after the bars in 
question instead of with them its two phrases (^the fore and after) 
correspond in so many details, as to afford presumptive evidence that the 
later point is the real commencement of the passage. 

(ii) With the exception of the omission of ten bars, of which the two 
in question form the closing measures, the recapitulation in this move- 
ment is practically a repetition of the exposition. According to this 
view, therefore, the missing ten bars form one passage (a portion of the 
principal subject), which is thus omitted in its entirety, whilst, according 
to the other view, the first eight bars belong to one passage, and the 
remaining two to another, of which they alone the opening measures 
are missing in the repetition. 

(d) The first section of the second subject consists of a sixteen-bar 
sentence m four-bar rhythm. There is a half-cadence in the eighth bar, 
followed by a variation of the first half of the sentence, modified also to 
end with a full, instead of a half, cadence. In this section, however, a 
special point to notice is the imitation of the opening motive in the bass 
of bars 42-43, and 50-51. 

(e) The second section consists of an eight-bar sentence which is 
repeated, trie repetition being prolonged by cadential extensions lying 
both within, and beyond the cadence. Whether this section starts on the 
second beat in bar 56, or with the commencement of the following bar, is 
not a vital point, but is still one of some interest to consider. A com- 
parison of the opening phrase with its repetition, bars 59-60, would seem 
to indicate the commencement of bar 57 as the starting-point; and yet 
the ear, which is above all the guide, seems most decidedly to detect a 
division of the phrases in the previous bar. In this case, the second 
beat in bar 56 forms a melodic prefix to the first phrase. 

(f) The end of the exposition is the second important point on which 
there is a difference of opinion; it has been variously placed in bar 102, 
and in bar 1 10.* 

Taking the view that the principal subject consists of the one six- 
teen-bar sentence only, there is no doiibt whatever on that point, for the 
exposition ends quite regularly, in bar 102, after a complete re-entry of 
the principal subject in the key of the tonic (see supra b, c, paragraph 4). 

* If the passage, bars 102-110, is to be considered the closing passage of the ex- 
position, it follows that those who also consider that the principal subject continues 
to bar 2G : will place the end of the exposition, not in bar 110, but in bar 112. 



62 :,1OZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

According to either of the other two analyses the end of the exposition 
.is bound to be unusual, no matter whether it is considered to close : 

(i) in bar 102 in which case, although it ends in the key of the 
tonic, it is with but a partial re-entry of the princi- 
pal subject : or, 

(ii) in bar 1 10 (or 1 12*) in either of which cases the exposition ends 

with a complete re-entry of the principal 
subject, but under most exceptional con- 
ditions, viz., it closes in the key of the 
sub -dominant.^ 

Of these two analyses that at (i) would, to our mind, be preferable. 

(g) This passage, founded on the first portion of the transition, 
forms the opening passage in Part II. It modulates and leads into the 
episode in the keys of B minor and G major. In bars Ii2 2 -ii8, the pre- 
ceding cadence is transposed, successively, into E minor and D major, 
and then converted into a half -cadence into the key of B minor. 

(h) The episode proper commences with a, melody in B minor ending 
on a half-cadence, bar 126, after which the same melody is repeated, 
inverted and lengthened, ending this time on a half -cadence in G major, 
138. A second melody, founded however on the first (or as some may 
prefer to call it, a second part of the first melody) follows in the latter 
key. The episode is succeeded by or concludes with a second transi- 
tional passage (bars 154-173). Opening in similar manner to the one 
which precedes the episode, it modulates from G major, through E minor, 
D major and A major to D major, and ends, after a short pedal on A, 
with a cadenza leading to the recapitulation of the principal subject. 

(j) The transition is modified, so as to lead into the second subject 
in the key of the tonic. 

(k) The coda commences with a partial re-entry of the principal 
subject (the second portion), followed by the first portion of the transi- 
tion, the latter being prolonged by cadential repetition. 



* See footnote on previous page. 

t Hadow considers the treatment of the upward arpeggio-passage, bars 102-104 1 , 
to be more like that of a transition than that of a subject. 



SONATA No. X, IN C MAJOR (K. 330), (1/79*). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 

Allegro moderato 



? f 




7n 



movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT" ALLEGRO MODERATO," IN C MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 




EXPOSITION. 


Bars. FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


<a)f 


First Subject in Tonic. 


1-161 


(h) Bars 5987. 


First Subject in Tonic. 


88-1031 


(b) 


Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (overlap- 






Bridge-p assage or 
Transition (unaltered, 




(c) 


ping)- 
Second Subject in G 


16-18 




overlapping), 
(j) Second Subject in G 


103-105 




major (Dominant). 


19-541 




major (Dominant) and 












C major (Tonic). 


106-1411 


<d) 


f First 1 19-3U \ 






( First 106-1211. } 




() 


\ Second 342-421 \ 






\ Second 1212-1291. i 




<f) 


(Third 42-1-541 J 






I Third 129-1-1411. J 




(g) 


Codetta. 


54-58 




(k) Coda. 


141-150 




Double bar and repeat. 






(1) Double bar and repeat. 




SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE CANTABILE," IN F MAJOR (KEY OF THE SUB- 




DOMINANT), (a) MINUET AND TRIO FORM. 






PART I. 


Bars. 


PART II. Bars. \ PART III. 




(= the Minuet.) 




Episode in F minor (Tonic- 












Minor = the Trio). 








BINARY FORM. 




BINARY FORM. 






Par t i : 




Part i : 




(b) 


Eight-bar Sentence in 


To 81 


(d) Eight-bar Sentence in 20-2-281 ;: Repetition of 




F major (Tonic) and C 




F minor and A flat Pt. I (without 




major (Dominant). 




major (relative major). repeats). 




Double bar and repeat. 




Double bar and repeat. : Bars 40-2-601. 


Part ii: 




Part ii : 






<c) 


Sentence of twelve bars, 


8-2-201 


Eight-bar Sentence 28-2-361 








starting in G minor, 




modulating back to F 








modulating back to key 




minor. 








of F major. 




Double bar and repeat 








Double bar and repeat. 




(e) First phrase of Episode 36-2-401 


(f) Coda 


60-2-64. 








repeated on Tonic 












pedal, slightly modi- 












fied, and ending on per- 












fect cadence. 







* There is some uncertainty as to the date at which Sonatas X, XI and XII were written. They ap- 
peared in Vienna in 1779, as Op. 6, but whilst cataloguing: them amongst the works composed in that year. 
Kochel draws attention to the fact that they were composed probably at a much earlier date, viz., towards 
the end of the year 1770. 

t These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 
text. 
+ The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



6 4 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT " ALLEGRETTO," IN C MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 
EXPOSITION. Bars, n FREE FANTASIA. RECAPITULATION. 



(a) First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) Bridge-p assage or 

Transition. 

S e c o n d Subject in 

G major (Dominant). 

(c) j First 33-46 or 471.) 

(d) (Second 47-611. J 

(e) Codetta. 

Double bar and repeat. 



1-20 



21-32 
33-611 



612-68 



] (f) Bars 69-95. 



First Subject in Tonic 

(unaltered). 96-115 

( g) Bridge-p assage or 

Transition. 116-131 

Second Subject in 

Tonic. 132-1601 

[First 132-145 orl 
1461. 

[Second 146 - 1601. J I 
'h) Coda. 1602-171 
(j) Double bar and repeat.) 



Bars. 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is a sentence of twelve bars prolonged by 
cadential extensions to bar 16. The overlapping of the transition in the 
last bar gives rise to one of those cases of apparent "elision" of the 
cadence explained in (b), paragraph ii, first movement, Sonata VII. 

It will be noticed in bar 8 that the presence of the auxiliary note on 
the accent, and the consequent shifting of the third of the tonic chord 
from that position, removes the effect of finality from the perfect 
cadence. And not only this, but it actually leaves the mind in a certain 
state of suspense, a suspense which necessitates the sentence being con- 
tinued in order to complete the musical idea. 

(b) The transition is only three bars long; it ends on a half-cadence 
in C major. Opinion seems to be about equally divided as to whether 
these three bars are to be considered as forming a separate passage of 
transition, or are merely the last bars of the first subject (see Sonata I, 
first movement, b, page 2). 

(c) The second subject is divided into three sections followed by a 
codetta. The character of the various sections is well described by the 
suggestive expressions, Schlusz I (= the second section), Schlusz 
II (= the third section), and Anhang (= the Codetta). See Cotta edi- 
tion, Sonata III. 

(d) The three-bar phrase, bars 29-31, gives variety to the hitherto 
unbroken two-bar rhythm in this section. 

(e) This passage contains two four-bar phrases. The first ends on 
a half -cadence; the second, a varied repetition of the first, ends with a 
full cadence, bar 42*. 



SONATA NO. X. 65 

(f) This section consists of a 6-bar sentence which is repeated with 
some slightly florid variation. 

(g) The Codetta is formed of simple cadence extensions. 

(h) The second part of this movement consists of fresh passages 
which, however, include some references to the first subject, though they 
contain no real working of previous material. Compare (i) bars 65-66 1 
with 7-8, and (ii) bars 81-82 with bar 13, the latter passage being the only 
place in which there is any approach to thematic treatment. Compare 
also the bass figures, bars 59-63, with those at the commencement of the 
first subject. The music touches transiently the keys of C major (59-60), 
and A minor (60-61). In bars 69, there is a decided modulation to A 
minor thence after incidentally touching the keys of F major (72-73) and 
D minor (73-74) to C minor and C major (the Tonic). This part closes 
with a passage on the dominant, which starts in C minor and ends in 
C major. A short link leads into the recapitulation of the first subject. 
Note the chord of the inverted dominant 9th in G major, in both the 
diatonic and the chromatic forms, bars 61-63. 

(j) An unusual feature in the form of this movement is to be met 
with in the recapitulation of the second subject. Instead of re-appearing, 
according to the usual custom, in the key of the tonic (here, C major), 
the second subject starts irregularly in the key of the dominant, G major, 
returning only to the tonic, in bar 109, at the end of the first phrase. 
After this, however, the remainder of the subject reappears in the latter 
key with but slight modifications. 

(k) The real Coda commences in bar 145, for up to this point the 
recapitulation has only repeated in the key of the tonic what has already 
occurred in the corresponding -portion of the exposition in the key of the 
dominant. The passage, which is founded on the opening bars of the 
free fantasia, is written over a tonic pedal with suggestions of the plagal 
cadence. 

Strictly speaking, the Coda commences at the point at which the recapitulation 
of the exposition ceases. We often find, however, the Coda marked as commencing 
with the repetition of the original Codetta, where the few added bars of the Coda 
are immediately preceded by such repetition of the Codetta, and where, as in this 
instance, these added bars are of simple cadential character; or, as in other instances, 
merely carry on, with more or less elaboration, the figures of the foregoing Codetta 
(e.g.,cf. the Finale of this Sonata and compare the Codetta and Coda in the first 
movement of Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 49, No. 1). 

In accordance, therefore, with what appears to be a generally accepted view, the 
Coda in this movement is marked on the accompanying Thematic Scheme as com- 
mencing in bar 141. 

(1) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 






66 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 



(a) Various terms are used to describe the form of this movement, 
some writers styling it three-part, ternary or three-part song-form, others 
calling it episodical (i.e., a movement with one episode). The terms 
Song form with Trio, and Minuet and Trio form are also frequently met 
with.* The last named term is very appropriate as it so exactly describes 
the construction of the movement. Part I is equivalent to the Minuet, 
whilst the episode takes the place of the Trio, each ending with a perfect 
cadence in its own key. In this instance both Part I and the episode are 
in binary form, with their respective first and second parts followed by 
double bars and repeat marks. Part III is equivalent to the repetition of 
the Minuet, being an exact reproduction of Part I, written out in full (of 
course without repeats), and with the addition of a short coda. 

(b) Frequent use is made of the opening figure (four repeated C's). 
it being imitated and repeated several times both in Part I and in the 
episode. 

(c) The resemblance between the terminations of the first and second 
parts of Part I, bars 7-8 and 19-20, should be noted. Such similarity 
between the terminations of the tw r o parts is a very frequent, though not 
invariable, feature in binary form.f Note also the modulation to B fiat 
major (bars 14-16), and the earlier modulation to G minor (bars Q-io), 
modulation towards the subdominant side of a key being another feature 
often to be met with in this form, near the commencement of Part II, and 
during its course. 

(d) More unusual than the similarity of the terminations spoken of 
in the previous paragraph and therefore to be specially noted is the 
resemblance between them and the final cadence in this passage, bars 
27-28. 

(e) Though called by some writers "codetta" and others "coda," as 

* The varied names do not, in this instance, imply a difference of opinion as 
to the form of this little movement, they are merely various characteristic terms 
used to describe the same form. Both Stewart Macpherson and Percy Goetschius, 
however, differentiate between the use of certain of these terms, viz., Ternary, Minuet 
and Trio, and Episodical Form (the latter author using slightly different termin- 
ology) '> i n other Avords, both of them advocate that some limitation be set upon the 
meaning of each term. Fundamentally, all the terms mentioned in (a) above sig- 
nify music whose structure divides naturally (sometimes more, and sometimes less, 
markedly) into three parts. The advantage gained, however, by the use of such 
differentiation is that each term in itself then conveys a much clearer conception of 
the scope of any particular movement than when some of these terms are considered, 
and employed, as being practically interchangeable with each other. 

f See also Sonata VIII, third movement, footnote || to (h), page 53. 



SONATA NO. X. 67 

a matter of fact neither term is quite appropriate to this passage. 
Banister, though afterwards referring to it as a codetta, speaks of it as 
" serving as intermezzo , i.e., put in between not, however, leading back to 
the first subject, but closing again, like a codetta in F minor/'* 

Another authority says " not the nature of the coda, more accurately, 
a repetition of first phrase of the episode with cadence inF minor." 

(f) The Coda to the entire movement, like the passage referred to 
above (e), is founded on the first phrase of the episode. In this case, 
however, it occurs, of course, in the major instead of in the minor mode, 
as in the episode. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject consists of a sentence of sixteen bars with a full 
close in sixteen, afterwards extended to bar 20 by cadential repetitions. 
Bars 9-16 are a varied repetition of i-S, the full close in 15-16 replacing 
the half close in 7-8. 

(b) The first portion of the transition is of a very melodious charac- 
ter. Starting at one degree higher than the first phrase, the second 
phrase (bars 25-28) commences with an imitation of the opening figure of 
the first. The passage modulates, in bar 31, to G major, in which key it 
closes on a, half -cadence in the following bar. 

(c) The first section of the second subject is of unusual construction. 
Its first phrase is two and a half bars in length, the bass however carry- 
ing on its own figures for the full four measures; bars 37-39* repeat the 
phrase of two and a half bars, after which the responsive four-bar phrase 
(39 2 -43 1 ) enters immediately without any repetition of the foregoing unac- 
companied bass figures. In the repetition of the latter phrase the expected 
full cadence is abruptly interrupted, the finality of its effect being 
suddenly arrested by the sounding of the fifth alone instead of the 
whole of the tonic chord on the strong accent in bar 47. 

Had the cadence between bars 46-47 been more clearly defined 
Ridley Prentice would have called the succeeding passage (bars 47-61*) 
a " tributary "t of the second subject in more usual nomenclature a 
second section. As it is, he discriminates and calls it a "continuation" 
of the second subject this, in accordance with the view held by many 
authorities, that each section of the second subject must end with a 
perfect cadence. 

Such a distinction, at any rate in this instance, seems a little unneces- 

* "Lectures on Musical Analysis," H. C. Banister. 
f "The Musician," Ridlev Prentice. 



68 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

sary. Rather would it appear to the present writer that in this passage 
Mozart is feeling his way towards the newer methods, although, in his 
day, the time was not ripe for such a radical change.* 

The point as to the exact number of sections into which any given 
second subject may be divided is one on which there is very often a 
variety of opinion; the factor of paramount importance in coming to a 
decision in such cases being that, before any passage can be considered to 
form a separate section, there must be clear evidence that it contains a 
new musical idea. And on this point, in the passage in question, there is 
no doubt whatever.! 

For, in bar 46, we feel that the first theme is nearing its close; in 
fact, we actually hear the first chord of the final cadence, followed, in 
47, by a form ~bf the tonic chord. And, however inconclusive this may 
sound as regards its cadential effect, no doubt whatever is created in 
the mind as to its being the point at which another, and an entirely new, 
musical theme commences. 

(d) The second section is built mainly on broken chord figures in 
striking contrast to the "stepwise" figures in the first section. It com- 
mences with a two-bar phrase, which is repeated, the responsive phrase 
(commencing on the second semiquaver in bar 51) continuing to bar 55 
where, after transient modulation to C major in 52-53, it ends with a 
perfect cadence in G major. This phrase is also repeated, its repetition 
being lengthened to six bars. 

Note the chromatic chord, G major f iv{, 7 (Ilfob) bars 54 and 58. 

(e) With the exception of the break at the final cadence, the codetta 
is written on a tonic pedal. 

* When discussing the question of how to recognise the point at which the First 
Subject ends and the Transition commences, Stewart Macpherson remarks that 
11 frequently in modern compositions, there is a total absence of any strong cadence 
in the Tonic key in the course of the First Subject, the music modulating freely and 
leading imperceptibly into the Second Subject." . . . . it " is the outcome of that 
desire for greater continuity which has characterised the writings of the more modern 
masters, from the time of Beethoven onwards. This desire is further manifested in 
the tendency of later writers to insist less strongly upon the definite demarcation of 
other important divisions of their movements by well-marked cadences and points of 
repose, and to allow these divisions to merge one into the other far more than was 
the case with the older masters. All this is now possible, owing partly to the fact) 
that audiences have, in the course of time, grown more accustomed to the shape of 
the works to which they are called upon to listen ; and, as a consequence, there is* 
the less need for the formal cadence-points and emphatic terminations which served 
an undoubtedly necessarv and important purpose in the earlier writings." See 
" Form in Music." 

t A view with which, as is evident from the wording of his remark, Ridley 
Prentice agrees. 



SONATA NO. X. 69 

(f) This portion of the movement consists of an episode which, 
beyond one slight exception,* bears no reference whatever to Part I, the 
slight thematic "working" it contains being founded on its own figures.! 
Bars 79-84 form a short ascending sequence accompanied throughout, 
hcwever, by the recurrent G. Note the slight working of figures in the 
passage on G, which follows. Compare also the figures in bar 75 with 
those in 71. Beyond a momentary suggestion of the key of A minor, 
modulation in this episode is confined to the return from the key of the 
dominant to that of the tonic the latter occurring, first in the major, 
and afterwards in the minor, mode. Note (i) the second chord in bar 74, 
G major, jf iv (II 7 b) and (ii) the chord of the Italian sixth in C minor, 
bar 9i 2 . 

(g) The transition reappears slightly lengthened and modified. 
Bars 124-129, which modulate through F major and D major to C major, 
form, in the treble, a descending sequence. 

(h) The coda is a slightly extended repetition of the original 
codetta.* It is of interest to note that, in bars i64 2 -i68 1 , the descending 
figures are immediately followed by responsive ascending figures. 

(j) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 



* In bar 85, which compare with bar 1. 

t On account of this unusual feature Hadow remarks : " This is clearly an experi- 
ment in form and may stand as an isolated exception to the rule." 

1 Cf. supra, first movement (k). 



SONATA No. XI, IN A MAJOR ;K. 331), (1/79*)- 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



A ndante grazioso 







P5 



i -V 



i s ; is i is i Si 




7/i three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMEXT fa) f'TEMA." IN A MAJOR, WITH SIX VARIATIONS. 
(b) TEMA AND (g) VARIATION IV. ! _Bars._; VARIATIONS (d) I AND (ej_II. | Bars - 



Double bar and repeat. 



14 



First sentence in A major 
(Tonic). 

) First phrase ending on a 
half-cadence 

(ii) S e c o D d phrase the 
theme of the first phrase, 
modified to close with a 
full cadence 
Double bar and repeat. 



Second sentence in A major. 

(i) New phrase ending on 

a half-cadence ... ... 9-12 

(c) J(ii) Return to the second 

phrase of A, prolonged by; 

cadential repetitions to| 

six bars ... ! 13-18 



First sentence in A major 
(Tonic). 
(i) First phrase ending on a 

half-cadence 

(ii) Second phrase - - the 
theme of the first phrase, 
raried as to the figures, 
also modified to close with 
a full cadence 
Double bar and repeat. 
Second sentence in A major. 

'(i) New phrase ending on a 

half-cadence 

(ii) Return to the figures of \ 
the first phrase in A,\ 
which, however, reproduce | 
the theme as modified in j 
the second phrase (see \ 
Tema A (ii) ^ 

N.B. In the cadence repeti- 
tion the fiyures chanae 
and revert to those of the 
second pJiTQ8 in A 
Double bar and repeat. 



1-4 



912 



13-10 



17-18 



* See Sonata X, footnote * to Thematic Si-home, page 63. 

t The whole of the first movement is incorrectly barred, it should commence with a half-bar. 



SONATA NO. XI. 



(f) VARIATION III. 



In A minor 
(the Tonic 
minor). 



For the T lie- 
in title Scheme, 
see Variations 
I and II. 



(h) VARIATION V. 



Adagio. 
A First sentence in A major. 

(i) First phrase ending on a half-cadence. 

(ii) Second phrase the theme of the first 

phrase, varied as to the figures, 

also modified to close with a full 

cadence 

Double bar and repeat. 

B Second sentence in A major (principally) 

' (i) New phrase, modulating to D major 

(Subdominant), returning (bar 11) 

to A major, in which key it ends on 

a half-cadence 

(ii) Return to the figures of the first 
phrase in A, but for tivo bars only, 
the theme (as hitherto) reproducing 
the melody as modified in the 
second phrase [see A (ii)] ... 
IV. 7?. In bars 15-16, the figures change, 
and revert to those of the second 
phrase in A. 
Double bar and repeat. 



Bars. 



1-4 



5-8 



9-12 



13-18 



(j) VARIATION VI. 



Allegro. 

For Thematic 
Scheme, bars 1-18, 
see Variations I 
and II. 



(k) Coda 18a-3-26. 



SECOND MOVEMENT (a) MENUETTO AND TRIO. MINUET AND TRIO FORM. 



PART I. 


Bars. 


PART II. 


Bars. 


PART III. 


MENUETTO IN A MAJOR. 




(e) TRIO IN D MAJOR (SUB- 






(b) TERNARY FORM. 




DOMINANT) . 










TERNARY FORM. 






(c) Part i : 




(f) Part i : 






First Sentence in A 




Sentence in D major 






major (Tonic). 


1-10 


(Tonic) and A major 






Second Sentence in E 




(Dominant). 


1-16 




major (Dominant). 
Double bar and repeat. 


11-18 


Double bar and repeat. 
Part ii : 




Menuetto D.C. 


(d) Part ii : 




Passage starting in E 






Passage starting in B 
minor, modulating, and 




minor, modulating 
through C major, and 






ending on half-cadence 




ending on half-cadence 






in A minor. | 


19-30 


in D minor. 


17-36 




Part iii : 




Part iii : 






Repetition of Part i, 
both sentences in the 




Repetition of Part i, 
modified, and entirely 






Tonic. 


31-48 


in the Tonic. 


37-52 




Double bar and repeat. 




Double bar and repeat. 







% See footnote to t (d), second movement, page 75. 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT" ALLA TURCA," IN A MINOR AND A MAJOR, (a) RONDO. 



(b) 



(c 



PART I or PRINCIPAL SUBJECT in A minor (Ternary Form}. 

Part i: Eight-bar sentence in A minor (Tonic) and E minor (Dominant 

minor) 

Double bar and repeat. 

c) Part ii: Eight bars in C major (relative major) and A minor (Tonic) 
(d) Part in: Return to first phrase of Part i, in Tonic, followed by new second 

phrase in Tonic 

Double bar and repeat. 
PART II (e) EPISODE IN A MAJOR. 

Opening Section (or Part i) 

Eight-bar sentence in A major. 

Double bar and repeat. 

Middle Sections (or Part ii) in Ternary Form 

Part i = Eight-bar sentence in F sharp minor and C sharp minor 

322-401 
Double bar and repeat. 

Part ii= Eight-bar sentence in A major 40 2 -48l 

Part Hi = Repetition of Part i, modified and entirely in the key of F 

sharp minor ... 48 2 -56i 

Double bar and repeat. 
Closing Section (or Part iii). 

Repetition of opening section (unaltered) 

Double bar and repeat. 

PART III OR PRINCIPAL SUBJECT (second entry). 
Repetition of PART I in original key 
Part i (unaltered). 

Double bar and repeat. 
Parts ii and iii (unaltered). 
Double bar and repeat. 

(f) Repetition of opening section of Episode in A major, slightly modified ... 

J)ouble bar and repeat. 

(g) CODA r 

/New theme 962-1091 \ 

I Repetition of the same theme, slightly varied and extended 1092-127 J 



Bars. 



To 81 

82-161 

162-241 

242-321 
322-561 



562-641 
642-881 

882-961 
962-127 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The construction of this sonata is unusual (i) because it contains 
no movement whatever in sonata form, and (ii) because of the form in 
which the opening movement is written,* viz., that of an air with 
variations. 

(b) It is of interest to give some attention to the form of this little 



* Mozart is credited with having introduced this innovation, of which this 
sonata is probably the first example. (See Sonata IV, first movement, a). It is 
interesting to note that Beethoven, in his pianoforte Sonata in A flat, Op. 26, also has 
an air with variations for the first movement. 



SONATA NO. XI. 73 

Tema and its succeeding variations; for in them one discovers another 
example of a "hybrid form," somewhat similar to that in which the 
" Tema " in the finale of Sonata VI is written : similar, yet differing 
from it in one important detail. In the finale to Sonata VI it is pointed 
out that its Tema "is written in a form which is neither wholly binary 
nor wholly ternary in design, but which partakes of the character of 
both, the shape approximating to binary, whilst the inherent idea con- 
tained in it is emphatically ternary." 

In this instance the shape approximates to the binary, if anything 
still more closely than in the foregoing example; but whereas in that 
instance, as above stated, the musical idea is emphatically ternary, here 
it is the musical idea which in itself is hybrid, combining, as it does, 
features which individually are characteristic, one of the binary, and 
the other of the ternary, design. 

In order to gain a clear comprehension of this, it is only necessary 
to compare carefully the contents of the different variations with those 
-of the Tema. For, in five out of the six variations, the two phrases of 
Part I are characterised by different figures, and in these variations it 
will be found, that whilst the return in Part II is to the first phrase 
.figures (characteristic of ternary design), these figures reproduce the 
iheme as modified in the second phrase* (characteristic of binary). 

(c) The double upward suspension over the tonic bass, in bar 16, 
should be noted, t Compare with it also the various modifications of the 
passage to be found in the different variations. The penultimate chord 
in the final cadence is the chord of the dominant thirteenth. The 
C # would, however, be looked upon by some theorists merely as an ac- 
cented auxiliary note. 

(d) The first variation is characterised by semiquaver figures, princi- 
pally in the treble part, in which the second of every two semiquavers is 
usually the melody note. 

(e) The feature of the second variation is the continuous movement 
of semiquavers in triplets. 



* That it is this melody which is reproduced and not that of the first phrase is 
probably due to the twofold fact (i) that the two phrases in Part I commence alike, 
and (ii) that there is the necessity of bringing this the final phrase of the variation, 
in similar manner to the second phrase to a conclusion with a, perfect, instead or 
with a half, cadence. For even in the Tema itself (as also in Variation IV) where the 
return is to an exact repetition of the second phrase in Part I, the impression given 
by the music is still one rather of a ternary design (statement, digression and re- 
statement), than of the binary (statement and response). 

f Or "retardation" as some theorists term it. 



74 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(f) In the third variation (in the key of the tonic minor) the semi- 
quaver figures are sustained simultaneously in both treble and bass. In 
bar 8 (repeated in bars 16 and 18) we find the melodic form of the minor 
scale employed. 

(g) The fourth variation is rendered very distinctive by the con- 
tinual crossing of the left hand over the right hand. 

(h) Variation V, Adagio.* Characterised by demisemiquaver 
figures. In this variation the melody notes are again frequently dis- 
placed by accented auxiliary notes. In bars 9-10, there is a modulation 
to the key of D major. This is the only variation in which this modula- 
tion occurs. 

(j) Variation VI, Allegro. The combined change of time signature 
and tempo entirely alters the character of the melody in this variation 
the harmony, however, remains practically unchanged. See also the last 
variation in the Finale of Sonata VI. 

(k) It should be noted that the apparently exceptional use of the 
cadential |, in bar 23, is caused by the wrong barring of the movement. 
Were the movement correctly barred, the position of this chord would be 
perfectly regular. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) This is the second of Mozart's pianoforte sonatas which contains 
a Minuet and Trio, the only other one being Sonata IV in E|7. See 
second movement (a) in that sonata, page 23, and Sonata XX, third move- 
ment (a), page 164. 

(b) The remarks in Sonata IV, second movement (c), should be care- 
fully read here. 

(c) The form in which this Minuet is written is instructive. Com- 
bining, as it does, in miniature the essential features of the larger and 
more important sonata-form, it is an especially clear and comprehensive 
example of the manner in which the latter was gradually evolved from 
the older and smaller forms. t And, on this account, some writers desig- 
nate the form " miniature sonata " : 

* See Sonata VI, third movement, footnote to (m), page 38. 
f See also Sonata TV, second movement (g), page 25. 



SONATA NO. XL 7> 

Comparative Scheme. 
Part /, or Exposition. Part II, or Free Fantasia. \ Part 111, or Recapitulation. 



First Sentence in Tonic = j Twelve bars modulating.* 
First Subject. 

Second Sentence, con- 
trasted melody in Domin- 
ant Second Subject. 



First Sentence in Tonic = 

First Subject. 
Second Sentence in Tonic 

= Second Subject. 



(d) Note (i) that bars 23-26 are sequential to 19-22;! (11) that bar 29 
contains the chord of the German sixth, the previous bar containing a 
chord of the augmented sixth " in outline"; (lii) that the sentences over- 
lap in bar 41 ; and (iv) that in the final cadence in Part I (repeated in 
Part III) the penultimate chord starts as the dominant thirteenth.} 

(e) The special point to notice in the Trio is the happy combination 
of " unity with variety " in the musical theme. In distinct contrast to 
the Minuet, the Trio, except for the short digression in Part II, contains 
but one theme, yet is this interwoven with such variety that, in Part III, 
actual repetition of the contents of Part I is restricted to the opening 
motive of that part. 

(f) Part I is an interesting example of a sentence which is prolonged 
by each successive section (with the exception of the first) being repeated, 
before the following section is given out. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The form of this movement is somewhat unusual. Very often 
called the " Rondo alia Turca," its design does not follow on the lines 
generally understood by the term " rondo-form." 

The movement consists of several small and separate sections i.e., 
the sections are all divided from each other by double bars and they 



* Not only does this passage modulate, but it contains some slight working 
of a figure. For a later, and very interesting example of such a development sec- 
tion " in miniature," see the Scherzo of Beethoven's pianoforte Sonata, Op. 2, No. 3. 

f Franklin Taylor points out that, owing to a want of clearness in the original 
edition, in -which the major and minor modes are curiously mixed, two versions of 
ihe passage, bars 24-26, are given. A few editions render the passage in the major 
mode, the other, and the more generally recognised version, is written in the minor. 

| In a few editions the dominant thirteenth is here written as an appoggiatura, 
in most, however, it appears as an acciaccatura. In Augener's edition, edited by 
Frainklin Taylor, the former method is adopted in the body of the work, a footnote 
to the movement, however, showing the alternative acciaccatura, with the remark 
that the earliest edition suggests this latter form. 



;6 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

are so arranged and repeated as to form a movement which may be briefly 
tabulated as follows* : 

(i) Part I, or principal subject in regular ternary form contains two sections. 

(ii) Part II, or episode (for details see Thematic Scheme, and (e) ), contains joiir 

sections. 

(iii) Part III an exact repetition of Part I contains two sections, 
(iv) Repetition of first eight bars of the episode (slightly modified), one section. 

(v) Coda contains one section. 

This may be described as episodical form,t and it is in the construc- 
tion of the episode itself that we find one very unusual feature of the 
movement. The episode, as above shown, is divided by double bars into 
four separate sections, the second and third of which constitute in them- 
selves a complete example of regular ternary form [see Thematic Scheme 
and (e)]. Banister explains an episode as being "a movement within a 
movement"; here we have an unusual example of a -portion only of the 
"movement within a movement" forming yet another complete little 
movement of itself. 

(b) It should be roted that this movement starts in the tonic minor 
to the key of the first movement. It ends, however, in the major mode, 
the long coda, in addition to the greater part of the episode, being in 
the key of A major. 

(c) The second phrase in this passage, in the key of A minor, is a 
repetition of the first phrase at a minor third lower, the whole passage, 
therefore, forming a modulating sequence.! 

(d) The first phrase in Part iii is a repetition of the opening phrase 
in Part 2, altered in the last chord (bar 20) to end on the chord of the 
German sixth. 

(e) The episode opens and closes with a section of eight bars in A 
major. 

* Hadow traces the origin of such, sectional movements to the disposition of the 
melodies in the eld suites and partitas, and considers that " Dvorak, under the title 
of ' Dumka,' has brought the type to the highest pitch of variety it can well attain." 

f Some writers call this " first Hondo-form," i.e., a movement in which the 
principal subject occurs only twice and there is but one episode. The term, Rondo, 
however, according to its usual acceptation, whether- applied to the older, or to the 
newer the Rondo-Sonata type, signifies a movement in which there are, at least, 
three entries of the principal subject. 

Ridley Prentice takes quite another view as to the construction, of the move- 
ment. He considers that it "may be best analysed as in extended song-form, with 
a refrain in A major " (the first entry, bars 24-32) " separating the parts." 

| Sequences, in which the pattern is a whole phrase in length, are of compara- 
tively rare occurrence and, as in this instance, there is seldom more than the one 
repetition. See Sonata VIII, first movement, footnote * to (g), page 49. 



SONATA NO. XL 77 

The middle portion starts with a sentence in F sharp minor, 
which modulating, ends on a perfect cadence in C sharp minor, bar 4O 1 
( = Part i). Its Part ii is an eight-bar sentence in A major, after which 
Part i is repeated, modified so as to end in the key of F sharp 
minor (56 1 ). 

(f) The first section of the episode, in slightly modified form, is 
here interpolated between the close of Part III and the commencement 
of the coda. 

(g) The theme of the coda is new, and the hitherto unbroken four- 
bar phrases here give place to less regularly grouped rhythms. The 
figures, however, both in the treble and bass parts, connect the Coda 
intimately with the earlier portions of the movement. 



SONATA No. XII, IN F MAJOR (K. 332), (1779*). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Allegro 










In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT- -" ALLEGRO," IN F MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. Bars. 


(a)f First Subject in Tonic. 

( b) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 
Transition. 
(c) Second Subject in C 
major (Dominant), 
(d) j First | 41-561. \ 
(e) | Second 562- g(jl. J 
(f) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-221 

223-40 
41-861 

863-93 


(g) Bars 94-132. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered), 
(h) Bridge-p a s s a ge or 
Transition, lengthened. 
Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
(First 177-1921. \ 
\Second 1922-2221.} 
(j) Codetta, 
(k) Double bar and repeat. 


133-1541 
1543-176 
177-2221 

2223-229 



SECOND MOVEMENT-" ADAGIO," IN B FLAT MAJOR (!VEY OF THE SUBDOMINANT). 
(a) MODIFIED SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 



Bars. 



B flat ) 



(b) First Subject 

( First phrase in 
I major (Tonic). 
{ Second phrase in B flat minor 
(Tonic minor) and F minor 
\ (Dominant minor). 
No Transition. 

(c) (Alternative Analysis. 

j First Subject in Tonic 1-4 \ 
{ Transition 5-8) 

(d) Second Subject in F major 
(Dominant) 

(e) Codetta 

(f) Link 



9-191 
19-201 
20 



R ECAPIT ULATI ON . 



Bars. 



(g) First Subject in Tonic, slightly 
elaborated 



No Transition. 



Second Subject in Tonic, elab- 
orated 
Codetta 



21-28 



29-391 
39-40 



text. 



See Sonata X, footnote * to Thematic Scheme, page 63. 
t These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subseque, 

The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



SONATA NO. XII. 79 

THIRD MOVEMENT" ALLEGRO ASSAI," IN F MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 



(a) First Subject in Tonic. 

(b) [First 1-14. } 

(c) {Second 15-221. \ 

(d) (Third 22-35. j 

(e) Bridge-p a s s a g e or 

Transition. 

Second Subject in C 
minor and major (Dom- 
inant minor and 
major). 

(f) (First in C minor 
J 50-651. 

(g) ) Second $ in C ma- f 
( jor, 65-1-90. J 
Double bar and repeat. 



Bars, i FEK FANTASIA. 



1-35 



36-19 i 



50-90 i 



(h) Bars 91-147. 



RECAPITULATION. 



(j) First Subject in Tonic. 

(First unaltered/ 

j 148-161. 

} Second unaltered, 

( 162-1691. 

Third omitted. 
(k) Bridge-p assage or 

Transition. 
(1) Second Subject in 

Tonic minor and major. 

( First in Tonic ] 

I minor, 185-2001, I 

} Second in Tonic ( 

I major, 200-1-2321. j 
(in) Coda. 



Bars. 



148-1691 



1692-184 
185-2321 



232-245 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject consists of two complete sentences in the tonic 
key. The first sentence, containing three four-bar phrases, is melodic in 
character; the second, more characteristically rhythmic, is an eight-bar 
sentence, prolonged to ten bars by cadential repetitions. In /-Q 1 , the 
melody overlapping, is repeated in the bass. 

(b) This passage is more interesting than many of Mozart's transi- 
tions. It starts with a phrase in D minor (the relative), which is repeated 
modulating, in bar 29, to C minor. Broken chord figures a variation 
of those already heard in bars 23-24 follow, taken (i) in bars 31-32, on 
the first inversion of the chord of C minor; (ii) in 33-34, on the first in- 
version of the chord of A flat; and, lastly, in 35-36, on the chord of the 
German sixth in C minor, in which key the passage ends on a half- 
cadence four bars later. 

This is another instance in these sonatas in which the key of the 
second subject is thus approached through that of its tonic minor. (See 
first movement of Sonata VIII, in A minor, and also that of Sonata XV, 
in F major.) 

(c) The second subject divides into two sections, of which the first 
is entirely in the key of the dominant major, the second alternating 
between the two modes of the same key. 

(d) The first section is a sixteen-bar sentence in four-bar rhythm, 
the second half of the sentence being a varied repetition of the first, 



8o MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

modified so as to end with a full, instead of with a half, cadence. Note 
the double upward suspension J g in bars 44 and 52.* 

(e and f) The second section commences in C major, with the melody 
in the bass. Bars 58 2 -6o 1 repeat the opening two-bar phrase an octave 
lower in C minor, and they are followed by four bars which, moving 
sequentially, modulate transiently into E flat major. In 65, the music 
returns to C minor, in which key there ensues a halt-cadence, several times 
reiterated. The mode changes back finally to the major in bar 71 with 
the entrance of the concluding portion of the section, which is also in 
two-bar rhythm. Bars 77-86* repeat bars 71-76 an octave higher, and 
with cadential extensions. A short and effective codetta (86 3 -Q3) brings 
the exposition to a close. 

(g) The free fantasia commences with an episode in C major,t 
which lasts for sixteen bars; after which the real development section 
commences. This is worked entirely on the second section of the second 
subject, with whose first four bars it opens. It passes through the keys 
of C major (109-110), C minor (111-113), G minor (114-117), D minor 
(118-126), A minor (127-128), to F major (129), on the dominant seventh, 
in which key it closes (132). Note (i) the real sequence between bars 
114-117 and 1 1 8- 1 2 1, i and (ii) the chord of the Italian sixth in D minor, 
bar 122. 

(h) The transition reappears lengthened by the interpolation of four 
bars in the keys of C minor and B flat minor (163-166), which form a 
sequential repetition of the preceding four bars. The passage is modi- 
fied so as to lead into the second subject in the key of the tonic. 

(j) There is no coda; the movement ends with a repetition of the 
original codetta, transposed into the key of the tonic. 

(k) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) The terms u modified sonata," " abridged sonata," and " sona- 
tine" are variously employed by different writers to describe the form 
in which this movement is written, the terms being used synonymously. 



* See previous sonata, first movement, footnote to (c), page 73. 

t Compare bars 94-95, etc., with 71-72, etc. See also Sonata V, first movement 
(f) and footnotes, page 28. 

I See previous sonata, third movement, footnote to (c), page 76. 

The author has met with a single exception, the form of the movement in that 
instance being described as "sonata." 



SONATA NO. XII. 8 1 

(b and c) The first eight bars of this movement can be analysed in 
two ways. 

(i) Some writers consider the whole passage as first subject, the 
second portion of which (bars 5-8) starts with a repetition of the opening 
two-bar phrase, but in the key of the tonic minor ; it modulates then to 
the dominant minor and ends in a most unusual manner on a full cadence 
(with a Tierce de Picardie) in that key. This thus obviates the necessity 
for a specific "passage of transition."* 

(ii) Other writers, however, maintain that Mozart always intended 
a separate and distinct passage of transition in his movements in sonata 
form,t and that therefore the first subject in this instance ends on the 
half -cadence in the tonic (bar 4), bars 5-8 constituting the specific pas- 
sage of transition. 

In order that the student may form a, judgment on the question at 
issue, certain factors must be borne in mind, viz. : 

(i) That "the formal function of a subject is to present and embody 
some particular key" (Hadow) with the first subject this will be the 
key of the tonic. 

(ii) That the purpose of a transition is to lead away from the first 
key. 

(iii) That a passage of transition, though it may be, and often is, 
entirely new, on the other hand, commences very often with some figure 
or figures from the first subject. 

N.B. A fourth factor upon which many authorities insist, viz., that 
a first subject must at least be eight bars in length, does not help to a 
decision in this instance; for the movement, though written in J time, 
is virtually in | time, and therefore the first four bars (as written) are 
actually equivalent to eight bars.J 

Those writers, therefore, who take the second view, have many points 
to support their opinion. For bars 1-4 form a perfectly regular first 
subject ending on a half -cadence in the tonic, and the complete modula- 
tion into the key of the dominant minor in bars 5-8 (the debatable pas- 



* It is by no means infrequent, more especially in the works of the earlier com- 
posers, for a first subject to end on a half-cadence in the tonic, i.e., on dominant 
harmony; but, as Prout points out, "it is unusual, almost exceptional," for it to 
end, as in this instance, in the key of the dominant. 

f See Sonata I, first movement (b), page 2. 

J We may here point out that, were the movement barred in instead of in|, 
time, the character of the cadence in bar 8 would be altered, the final chord then 
falling on the strong accent of the bar instead of, as now, on the weaker one. 

7 



82 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

sage), which is so unusual when considered as occurring in the first sub- 
ject, is by no means an unusual feature in a passage of transition.* 

And yet, notwithstanding the above cogent arguments in favour of 
the analysis given at (c), the balance of opinion as far as the author 
has been able to ascertain it -is certainly in favour of that at (b). 

(d) The second subject, as is usual in slow movements, contains only 
one section, and, but for momentary transition into G minor, is entirely 
in the key of F major. The first four bars end with a perfect cadence 
in bar 12, the retardation of the tonic chord, however, removing the effect 
of finality from the cadence. t In I3~i6 2 , the foregoing bars are repeated, 
this time, however, they lead to a further phrase, the subject continuing 
to bar IQ 1 . 

(e) The one-bar codetta is written on a tonic pedal. Prout does 
not make any division here, but considers that the second subject con- 
tinues to bar 2O 1 ; on the other hand, Goetschius calls the bar, codetta. 

In discussing the close of the exposition in the slow movement of 
Sonata VIII, we pointed out that not only is the combination of a tonic 
pedal with more or less transient modulation to the key of the subdom- 
inant very often incidental to the coda and codetta, but that the end 
of the second subject is often determined by the presence of a shake ac- 
companying the final cadence. Yet, because in that movement, the last 
three bars of the recapitulation are practically identical with the last 
three bars of the exposition (of course with change of key) there seems 
to be no real necessity to separate them from the second subject by call- 
ing them codetta. In this movement, however, there is this difference : 
if we look to the end of the movement, we find that there is an extra bar 
added after the recapitulation of the exposition has ceased.% Short as 
this addition may be, it is in the nature of a small coda, and as it is 
an extension to the oar in question, we incline to the view taken by 
Goetschius, who calls the latter bar codetta both in the exposition and 
the recapitulation, the codetta at the end of the movement being length' 
ened by the addition of the second bar. 

(f) The remainder of bar 20 (i.e., starting on the second quaver), 
written on the chord of the dominant seventh in Bp major (the tonic), 
forms a link leading to the recapitulation. 

(g) As is usual in slow movements in this form, both subjects reap- 
pear varied by 'some ornamentation. 

(h) See (e). 

* See supra first movements of this sonata and infra, of Sonata XV. 
f Cf. Sonata X, first movement (a), paragraph ii, page 64. 
\ See Sonata X, first movement (k), paragraph ii, page 65. 



SONATA NO. XII. 83 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) The exposition in this movement, which on first hearing seems 
so clear in construction, has, nevertheless, been analysed in, at least, three 
different ways. 

One analysis, which we will call No. i, is that given in the Thematic 
Scheme of this sonata, from which the second differs only in one detail, 
viz., that the first subject is divided into two, instead of into three, sec- 
tions. In the second analysis, no division is marked in bar 22. There- 
fore, the whole passage from bar 15 to bar 35 which, in our accompany- 
ing Thematic Scheme, is marked as second and third sections, forms, 
according to this analysis, only one, i.e., the second, section. 

The third analysis differs considerably from both the others, and is 
as follows : 

First Subject = bars I-22 1 . 

Transition = bars 22-65 1 . 

Second Subject = bars 65-85 1 . 

Codetta = bars 85-90. 

Whenever, as in this instance, a movement, or any important portion, 
or portions, of it can be viewed in more than one way, it may generally 
be inferred that the movement contains at least one unusual feature, some- 
times more. 

The passages in this movement which give rise to the varying opin- 
ions are : 

(i) bars 22-35 ; 

(ii) bars 5O-65 1 ; 

the second of which we will discuss later on. 

Bars 22-35. 

According to the first method of analysing these bars, the unusual 
feature is that the first subject is exceptionally long, and contains three 
sections, each of which is entirely new. 

With reference to the bearing, if any, that the omission of these bars from their 
normal position in the recapitulation (see Thematic Scheme) has on the question at 
issue, we would point out that though, in Mozart's time, it was more usual for the 
whole of the first subject to reappear at the commencement of the recapitulation. 
still a good many instances are to be met with in which a portion, and sometimes 
even the whole of this subject is omitted at this point. 

According to* the third analysis, which excludes these bars from the 
first subject and looks upon them as a portion of the transition, the 
above objections automatically disappear. 



8 4 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



Yet, in spite of this argument in favour of this third method, we 
still incline to one which includes these bars as a portion of the first sub- 
ject, even though, by such an analysis, we have to admit the presence in 
the movement of a feature, so unusual, as three distinct sections to the 
first subject. For, with its final cadence prolonged for four bars over 
a tonic pedal, the passage in question ends so forcibly in the key of the 
tonic, that the impression given by it is very decidedly that of the final 
passage of a first subject, and not that of the opening portion of a 
transition.* 

As regards the question of the sole difference between the first and 
second analyses, viz., whether bars 15-35 should be regarded as forming 
two sections, or one, we prefer the former. On the one hand, it is cer- 
tainly unusual for a first subject to contain three sections, each of which 
is entirely new.t Yet, on the other hand, though some authorities insist 
that each section of a subject must end with a -perfect cadence, after all, 
a^ we have pointed out in an earlier sonata,* the great essential in deter- 
mining the question as to whether any passage constitutes a new, and 
separate, section, is whether there is clear evidence that such passage con- 
tains a fresh musical theme. In this instance, it is just possible there 
may be a difference of opinion as to whether the cadence, in bars 21-22, 
should be considered a " direct " or an " inverted " perfect cadence ; but, 
of the fact that a new theme starts in bar 22, there seems no doubt. 

(b) This section consists of a sentence of fourteen bars containing 
two unequal phrases. The first phrase is six bars in length, and ends on 
a half-cadence; the second, a repetition of the first, is prolonged to eight 
bars and ends on a full cadence. 

(c) The second section, the shortest of the three, is a great contrast 
to the others in style as well as in extent. It is of quiet, song-like char- 
acter, and, during its short eight bars, the opening figure is heard three 
times. 



* We would refer here to the discussion on a somewhat similar passage in the 
Finale of Sonata IX, a passage, however, which does not, as in this instance, end on 
a tonic pedal. In that case, also, the movement is a Rondo, and we would call the 
reader's attention, not only to the , b, c, paragraph iv, in that movement, but also 
to its footnote *, page 60. 

f Hadow draws attention to the fact that "where the first subject consists of 
three or more sections, it is common for the first two to be founded upon the same 
phrase, often either repeating it in a different register (Beethoven, Pianoforte Sonata 
Op. 31, No. 3), or transposing it one degree higher or lower in the scale (Beethoven, 
Op. 31, No. 1). " Sonata Form." 

J See Sonata X, finale (c), pages 67, 68. 



SONATA NO. XII. 85 

(d) The first phrase of this section is four bars in. length and ends 
with transient modulation into D minor (26). Bars 2/-32 1 repeat this 
phrase, now lengthened to -five bars and modified, so as to close with a 
perfect cadence in the tonic. The section ends with four bars on a tonic 
pedal. 

(e) The transition in this movement, like the corresponding passage 
in the first movement of this sonata, is of very interesting character and, 
similarly, starts in the key of the relative minor. During a great portion 
of the passage the bass imitates the treble at one bar's distance, and at 
the octave below. The second phrase (41-45) is a variation of the first 
phrase, repeated sequentially in the key of C major. After a further 
short sequence (bars 46-47), the passage ends on a half-cadence, in 49. 

(f) The special point to notice in the second subject is that the first 
section is entirely in the key of the dominant minor \ a device unusual 
with, though not unknown to, the earlier classical composers (see infra). 
The final cadence in this section ends, however, on a " Tierce de Picar- 
die/'* and the following section is in the dominant major. In bars 54-55, 
we find the minor seventh of the minor scale employed as a note of the 
harmony, f under the special conditions to which it is usually restricted. 
Bars 56* and 62 1 form chords of the augmented sixth. 

Bars $0-6$. 

This is the second important passage on which the first two analyses 
differ from the third method [see (a)]. 

According to the last method, not only does the transition com- 
mence in bar 22, but it continues to bar 65, thus including within its 
compass the three passages marked severally in the Thematic Scheme of 
this movement, as the third section of the first subject, the transition, and 
the first section of the second subject (d, e and f). It is, of course, the 
question of key which causes the difference of opinion as regards the 
passage, bars 50-65. This is written in the dominant minor, a key which, 
at that time, was exceptional for the opening of the second subject. Still 
we find it occasionally so employed, e.g., in Haydn's Quartet in A major, 
Op. 20, No. 6. Moreover, although, according to Prout, Mozart was less 
of an innovator as regards " form " than his older contemporary, yet, as 

* Note that the major chord in a Tierce de Picardie is not regarded as chromatic. 

f These conditions are : that the minor seventh may only appear as a note of the 
harmony in a progression descending stepwise from the tonic to the submediant. 
When this progression occurs in the bass, the minor seventh may bear a chord of the 
sixth, but is not allowed to form part of any other chord. Occasionally, the progres- 
sion of the seventh is to the note a semitone, instead of a tone, below. 



36 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

we have seen elsewhere, certain other innovations are attributed to his 
initiative." 1 ' His exceptional use of the key of the relative minor in ap- 
proaching the recapitulation should also be borne in mind. In the Finale 
of Sonata II, and in the slow movement of Sonata V (q.v. these two) he 
ends his free fantasia on the dominant in that key, instead of following 
the almost invariable rule at that time, and ending it on the dominant 
harmony in the key of the tonic. 

The irregularity of the key, therefore, seems by itself insufficient as 
an argument against the view that Mozart wrote this passage as the open- 
ing section of the second subject. On the other hand, however, if the 
transition is considered to extend from bar 22 to bar 65, as it is accord- 
ing to the third analysis, it is practically as long as the two subjects 
taken together. For the first subject is twenty-two bars in length, the 
transition is forty-three, and the second subject usually the most 
lengthy portion of the exposition has but twenty-five bars ; such an ap- 
portionment is very exceptional. 

(g) The second section consists of one sentence which is repeated. 
The repetition is considerably lengthened by cadential extensions. There 
is an occasional reference in the semiquaver figures to those in the opening 
section o'f the first subject. 

(h) The free fantasia in this movement is a most interesting one. 
The specially important points to notice in it are : 

(i) Its striking opening with the first phrase of the first subject 
transposed into the key of the dominant minor, and followed immedi- 
ately by a passage founded on the figures of the same phrase. The 
latter passage modulates transitorily through the key of C major, thence 
by means of the chromatic chord, F major V 7 , through B flat minor to 
E flat major, in which key (commencing in bar 112) the second note- 
worthy passage an episode occurs. 

As a rule, an episode is an unusual feature in the free fantasia, 
but it is a device of which Mozart seemed very fond. The episode is 
followed by a transitional passage modulating through G minor to 
F minor, in which key there is a passing reference to the second section 
of the second subject, and after four bars on dominant harmony, on C, 
it ends with a brilliant passage founded on figures from the original 
transition, taken by inverse movement (see bar 45), which leads into the 
recapitulation. 

* These innovations were : his writing of the first movement of a sonata fi) as 
an air with variations, and (ii 1 ) the entire movement and not merely its introduction 
Adagio. Vide Sonata IV, first movement fa), page 22. 



SONATA NO. XII. 8; 

(j) The first subject reappears, shortened by the omission of the 
whole of the last section. 

(k) The transition starts here in G minor and modulates to F major, 
a modulation corresponding to that in the original passage (viz., D minor 
to C major). It starts with a preliminary (and extra) half bar, on the 
chord of the Italian sixth. 

(1) The second subject reappears in the keys of the tonic minor and 
major, the second section being lengthened by the extension of the final 
cadence.* 

(m) The third section of the first subject, which was omitted in the 
recapitulation of that subject, reappears in full here to form the coda.f 



* The Coda is marked by some as commencing in bar 227, with the cadential 
extension. Compare, however, bars 227-2321 with 208-2101 an d 220-2221, and note 
how the first-named are a repetition with augmentation of the others. 

t Haydn also makes use of a similar device, viz., he omits the repetition of cer- 
tain important figures from their normal position in the recapitulation, and then 
introduces them at the end of the movement " as a, basis whereon to build his Coda." 
See Grove's Dictionary, article on " Form," by Sir Hubert Parry 



SONATA No. XIII* IN B FLAT MAJOR (K. 333), (1779). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 

A llegro 

j : ^* " _"^ 

/ 







In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT " ALLEGRO," IN B FLAT MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(a)f First Subject in Tonic, 
(b) Transition. 

Second Subject in F 
major (Dominant), 
(c) (t 1. 23-38. ] 
(d) \ 2. 39-501. } 
(e) ( 3. 50-1-59L J 
(f) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


To 10 
104-22 

23-591 
59-2-63 


(g) Bars 634-93. 


First Subject in Tonic 
(unaltered), 
(h) Transition (1 e ng t h- 
ened). 
Second Subject in 
Tonic (lengthened). 
f 1. 119-134. } 
(j) 2. 135-152L 
( 3. 152-U611. 
(k) Codetta. 
(1) Double bar and repeat. 


934-103 
1034-118 
119-1611 

161-2-165 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE CANTABILE," IN E FLAT MAJOR (KEY OF THE SUB- 
DOMINANT), (a) SONATA FORM. 

Bars. FREE FANTASIA. II 



EXPOSITION. 



RECAPITULATION. 



Bars. 



ID) First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Transition. 

(d) (Alternative Analy- 

sis. 
< First Subject 1-13. 

(No Transition. 

(e) Second Subject in B 
flat major (Dominant). 

(Section 1. 14-211. * 
t Section 2. 21-2-312 

(f) Double bar and repeat. 



1-81 
8-2-13 



(g) Bars 32-50. 



14-312 



(h) First Subject in Tonic 

(ornamented). 

Transition (orna- 
mented) . 

I Alternative Analy- 
sis. 

< First Subject 51 
63. 

(No Transition. 

Second Subject in 

Tonic (varied). 

/Section 1. 64-71L ) 
(Section 2. 71-2-81-2. f 
(j) Double bar and repeat, 
(k) One-bar Coda. 



51-581 
58-2-63 



64-81-2 



81-2-82 



* This sonata, composed in Vienna in 1779, appeared some years later as Op. 7, in conjunction with two 
others, viz., the Pianoforte Sonata in D major, No. 6, and a sonata for pianoforte and violin. See footnote to 
Thematic Scheme of Sonata VI. 

t These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 



text. 



J The symbol is here employed to denote a flection of a subject. 



SONATA NO. XIII. 

THIRD MOVEMENT" ALLEGRETTO GRAZIOSO," IN B FLAT MAJOR. 

SONATA FORM. 



(a) RONDO- 



PART I. 
EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


PART II. 
EPISODE. 


PART III. 
RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(b) Principal Subject in 
Tonic (first entry), 
(c) Transition. 

(d) SC9nd Subject in F 
major (Dominant), 
(e) Link. 

Principal Subject in 
Tonic (second entry). 


1-16 
16-2-242 

243-361 
36-40 

41-561 


(f) Transitional' 
connecting pas- 
sage, 56-275, 
leading to 
New melody, 76 
-90. 

Passage leading 
t o Recapitula- 
tion, 91111. 




Principal Subject in 
Tonic (third entry). 
(g) Transition (much 
lengthened), 
(h) Second Subject in 
Tonic (lengthened), 
(j) Pedal, Tonic. 
(k) "Cadenza in Tempo." 
(1) [Principal Subject in 
J Tonic (partial 
} fourth entry onl v) . 
t Coda. 


112-127 
127-2- 148 

1483-1641 
164-171 
171-198 

199-206 
206-224 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject is an eight-bar sentence prolonged to ten bars 
by repetition of the third two-bar section. The perfect cadence at the 
end of the first phrase (bar 4) should be compared with that at the end 
of the sentence. It is a striking instance of how greatly the effect of the 
finality of the perfect cadence depends upon the twofold circumstance, 
viz. : (i) as to which note of the tonic chord is sounded in the highest 
part, and (ii) as to whether or not this chord falls on a strong accent in 
the bar.* In bar 4, the pause given by the cadence may be said to be 
one of expectancy the mind awaits something further which, instinc- 
tively, it feels must follow and only in the second case is the effect 
produced one of complete rest. 

(b) The transition is founded principally on the opening figure of 
the first subject, with a repetition of which it commences. A variation 
of this figure further slightly modified at each repetition is heard 
three times in as many bars (14-17) and, with its first four notes aug- 
mented, twice in bars 19-22. The passage modulates in the second bar 
to F major, in which key it ends on a half-cadence. 

(c) The first section of the second subject is a sixteen-bar sentence 
in four-bar rhythm. The first half of the sentence ends on a half -cadence 
in F major, bar 30, after which the third phrase repeats the contents of 
the first, with slight variations, the fourth phrase altering so as to lead 
to the final perfect cadence. 



* Cf. the previous Sonata, second movement (d), page 82; and Sonata X, first 
movement (a), paragraph ii, page 64. 



90 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(d) The second section is an eight-bar sentence prolonged to twelve 
bars by cadential repetition of the whole of the after-phrase. The in- 
version of the parts at the commencement of the cadential repetition 
should be noted. 

(e) This is a sentence of nine bars. It consists of a four-bar phrase 
ending on a perfect cadence, which phrase is then repeated, being ex- 
tended, the second time, to five bars. It should be noted that this length- 
ening, though not caused by doubling the value of each note (= aug- 
mentation) is, however, caused by doubling the length of each of the two 
chords in bar 53. 

(f) The special feature to notice in the short codetta is that its open 
ing figure (repeated in bar 61) is the same augmented figure, taken by 
inverse movement : , which we have already met with in bars 19 and 21. 

(g) The free fantasia starts with a sentence in the dominant founded 
on the opening figure of the first subject in combination with a three- 
note figure from the opening of the second section of the second subject. 
With the exception of a passing modulation into G minor, bars 67-68, 
the sentence continues in F major until the very last chord where the 
sudden close on the chord of F minor, into which key the music now 
modulates, is very effective. The final cadence is a repetition of the one 
which occurs in the third section of the second subject, bars 53-54. From 
this point the working-out refers to the semiquaver figures in bars 35-36, 
as well as to the opening figure of the movement, the music modulatmg 
through C minor, and B flat, to G minor, in which key occurs a half- 
cadence, several times repeated, bars 80-86. A passage written on the 
dominant in B flat follows, alternating between the two modes of the 
key, which serves as a connecting link leading to the recapitulation of 
the first subject. 

The chord of F major Jf iv'p 7 b resolving on to the second inversion 
of the tonic chord, in bars 69-70, and the very interesting progression of 
chords in the key of G minor, in bar 80, should be noted. In the latter, 
the third chord is that extremely rare and ambiguous one vi 7 ambig- 
uous in that it can be equally considered to be derived from the chro- 
matic supertonic eleventh, or from the chord of the dominant thirteenth. 
IT. is preceded by the first inversion of the minor triad on the dominant 
and followed by the chord of the German sixth.* See page 85, foot- 
note f. 

* Referring to a similar passage in C minor which occurs in Schubert's Mass in 
E flat, Prout writes : " Occasionally progressions are found in which the mental effect 
produced is decidedly that of supertonic rather than of dominant harmony. This 
is more particularly the case when the vi 7 resolves upon a chord containing the 
leading-note of the dominant key." 



SONATA NO. XIII. 91 

Still another noteworthy, because somewhat unusual, succession of 
chords occurs in bars 85-86 1 . Twice here do we find the second inversion 
of a common ch6rd sounded on the weak beat, followed in each case 
on the stronger beat by a triad on the same bass-note. This is allowable 
because, in each instance, the second inversion is not only followed, but 
is also preceded by a chord on the same note. It is the only condition 
under which a J chord thus followed, may occur in the weaker position 
of the two chords, and it may be as well to remark that in such cases the 
J chord is not cadential. 

(h) The transition reappears lengthened from twelve to fifteen bars. 
The modification is in the first portion, the last eight bars being a trans- 
position of the corresponding portion of the original passage from the 
key of the dominant into that of the tonic. 

(j) With the exception of the second section, the second subject re- 
appears in the key of the tonic with but very slight alteration. The 
second section is, however, very much extended. Bars 143-146, excepting 
for the first group of quavers, form a descending, modulating sequence, 
passing through the keys of C minor, B flat major, and G minor. The 
first chord, in bar 147, is the first inversion of the chromatic supertonic 
seventh in B flat major, resolving on to the second inversion of the tonic 
triad, here used as a passing J; and the final chord, in bar 148, is the 
chord of the Italian sixth on the flat submediant in the same key. 

(k) The movement closes with the original codetta transposed into 
the key of the tonic. 

(1) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) See Sonata VIII, second movement (a), page 50. 

(b) The first subject consists of one sentence, whose second phrase is 
an ornamented repetition of the first, modified also to end on a perfect, 
instead of on a half, cadence, as in the fore-phrase. 

(c) The transition opens with an important five-note figure. In the 
second subject frequent allusions are made to the repeated notes with 
which it commences, and the free fantasia is founded almost entirely 
on it. 

(d) See Sonata I, first movement (b) and (c). 

(e) The second subject consists of two sentences the second of which 
is prolonged by cadential repetitions. 



92 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

It is possible to look upon these two sentences as forming either one 
section, or two ; we prefer the latter. 

The fore-phrase of the first sentence (or first ) subdivides into two 
two-bar sections ; the after-phrase, which is founded on the first, and 
starts with transient modulation to the key of the tonic, is not divisible 
into sections. In bar 20, we find the figure from bar 17 repeated with 
augmentation. 

The last three notes, in bar 31, in E flat major, form a link leading 
(a) to the repetition of the exposition, and (b) to the free fantasia. 

(f) See Sonata I, second movement (f), page 4. 

(g) As mentioned above in (c) the free fantasia is worked almost 
entirely on the opening figure of the transition. It starts in F minor, 
however, with an imitation freely inverted of the opening two bars 
of the first subject, the cadence in A flat major (42-43), being also 
founded on the final cadence in the same subject. 

From bars 35 to 41, the five-note figure from the transition with the 
second half of the figure augmented is divided between the bass and 
the treble, the former ascending chromatically, and the passage modu- 
lating through C minor to A flat major. In 43-44, the whole figure is 
transferred to the treble where, during the remaining bars, it is slightly 
developed, and the music passes through F minor (44-45); D flat minor 
(46-47); to E flat major, on the dominant seventh in which key the sec- 
tion closes. 

(h) As is very usual in the recapitulation in slow movements in son- 
ata-form, the first part reappears with florid ornamentation. 

(j) See Sonata V, second movement (j), page 30; and Sonata II, first 
movement (1), page 9. 

(k) Bar 52 forms a very brief coda. (See Sonata V, Finale.) 



THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) This Rondo, like the Finale of Sonata IX, is in definite rondo- 
sonata form. The movement is rendered distinctive by the presence of 
the cadenza, which is an unusual feature in a sonata for pianoforte solo 
(see(k)). 

(b) The first subject consists of an eight-bar sentence ending with 
a perfect cadence in the tonic, after which the sentence is repeated with 
slight variations. 






SONATA NO. XIII. 93 

(c) The transition commences with a new melody in the key of the 
tonic. Its second two-bar section is in free sequence with the first, and 
the following phrase also starts with a similar opening figure, com- 
mencing one degree higher. This modulates at once into F major (dom- 
inant), in which key the passage ends on a half -cadence, bar 24. 

For reasons detailed below, bars 20-^-24^ are marked as forming the second phrase 
of the original transition, and bars 144' 1 -14$ 2 as the closing phrase of the corres 
ponding passage in the recapitulation. According, however, to another analysis 
with which we have met, these passages form the opening of the second subject in 
the exposition, and in the recapitulation, respectively, the transition being marked 
as ending, in the first instance, on the immediately preceding full cadence in the 
tonic, and, in the second, on the preceding inverted cadence on F. In order to 
determine the point at which the transition ends and the second subject commences 
it is necessary, at any rate in doubtful cases, to compare the corresponding portions 
of the exposition and recapitulation. For the second subject which, in the exposi- 
tion, appears in some key other than the tonic (here the dominant*) reappears, in 
the recapitulation, transposed into the key of the tonic, and the point at which such 
definite transposition takes place usually marks the commencement of this subject 
and, ipso facto, the end of the transition as well. 

After comparing the two portions in this movement and noting their similari- 
ties and differences, we shall review them in detail, in the first instance, more especi- 
ally with a view to establishing the close of the original transition, and afterwards 
with a view to establishing that of the second. The arguments which apply equally 
to both passages, in this instance, are not altogether adequate to prove each passage 
individually. 

Bars 2o-*-2/. 

Such comparison then in this movement shows : 

(i) That the passage which commences in bar 24 after the four - 
bar phrase in question is the first melody which reappears 
in the later part of the movement transposed into the key 
of the tonic (see bar I48 2 ). 

(ii) That the modulatory passage in triplets, bars 137-143 
which is undoubtedly a continuation of the second transi- 
tion (a point on which the analysis, above referred to, agrees) 
is founded on bars 21-22, the first two of the same four 
bars now under consideration. 

(iii) That though the key of the tonic is definitely reached in 
bar 144, that bar and the three immediately following do 
not repeat any melody which has already been heard in the 

* In Sonata-Rondos in the major mode, the second subject is usually in the key 
of the dominant. Prout points out that Beethoven invariably followed this rule 
though, in his movements in sonata-form, he made many innovations as to the key 
of his second subject. See Sonata VIII, third movement (e) and footnote *, page 53. 



94 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

dominant, but are all founded on a single run in bar 23, 
the third bar of this same passage; and it should also be 
noted that they start with an almost note-for-note reproduc- 
tion not a transposition of this run, of which they form 
an extension, or elaboration. 

(iv) That these runs culminate in the following bar in a parallel 
manner to the single run in bar 23, viz., on a half -cadence. 

If, therefore, bars 137-143 form a portion of the second transition 
(with which view, as has already been mentioned, the other analysis 
agrees) it is a strong argument in favour of the assumption that bars 
21-22, on which they are founded, form part of the original transition. 
And such an inference is strengthened when taken in conjunction with 
the facts that : 

(i) The phrase which commences with these bars (i.e., bars 21-22), 
after continuing for a further two bars, closes (in 24) on a 
half -cadence in the key of the dominant, a very frequent 
mode of ending the transition in the exposition; and 

(ii) It is only after the occurrence of this half-cadence [see (a)] 
that the melody commences which, in the recapitulation, is 
transposed into the key of the tonic. 



Bars 1 44.- 

A half-cadence in the tonic, which corresponds to the above-men- 
tioned half-cadence, in bars 23-24, occurs in the recapitulation, in 147- 
148, and, according to the view expressed by th'5 other analysis, it there 
forms the close of the first phrase of the second subject. 

The student should, however, note particularly the conditions under 
which it occurs there, viz., it is the end of a four-bar phrase which is not 
even an approximate transposition of a melody from the exposition, but, 
as mentioned above, is one which commences with a practically note-for- 
note repetition of the original run in bar 23, on which the phrase is en- 
tirely founded : such a lengthened passage of brilliant runs in this posi- 
tion seems to us more characteristic of the end of a transition than of the 
commencement of a second subject. And when, in addition to this, we 
also take into fuller consideration the origin and context of bars 1 44-148^ 
we feel we are justified in coming to the conclusion that these bars (like 
bars 2cr 2 -24 2 in the exposition) form the close of the transition in the 
recapitulation. 






SONATA NO. XIII. 95 

Their origin. 

The bar on which all these runs are founded is the third bar 
of a phrase of which, in its original form and position, there is no 
question of subdivision between the transition and the second 
subject. 

Their context. 

They follow immediately on bars which are undoubtedly 
transition, and are followed by the half -cadence, parallel to the 
one which, after a careful study and comparison of both pas- 
sages, we have felt justified in marking on our accompanying 
Thematic Scheme, as the end of the original transition. 

Before leaving this discussion, we give the following essential de- 
tails relative to the other analysis of the debatable passages as the stu- 
dent, in forming his own conclusions upon them, should study the pas- 
sages from both standpoints. He must bear in mind that, according to 
this analysis : 

(i) The -first bar in the exposition of the second subject is not 
bar 25, but bar 21, which latter is written on the chord of 
F major (dominant). 

(ii) The first bar in the recapitulation of this subject is 145, 
written on an inversion of tonic harmony, to which the run 
in question forms but a " musical prefix "; and 
(iii) In bars 145 and 147, this run is transposed and written on 
tonic harmony, and it is the latter bar (and not the " musical 
prefix") which, in the recapitulation, actually corresponds 
to bar 23 in the exposition. 

We have come to our decision against the inclusion in the second 
subject of bars I44-I48 2 , on other grounds, and therefore look upon the 
fact that they would form such an exceptional commencement to the 
recapitulation of this subject as affording but an additional argument in 
favour of our decision. This, however, must not be confounded with, 
nor converted into, the conclusion that the latter fact, by itself, would 
furnish indisputable proof on the point in question. 

(d) The fore-phrase of the second subject consists entirely of repeti- 
tions of the opening motive, each time slightly varied. By a species of 
"augmentation" in the cadential repetition of the after-phrase, bar 31 is 
converted into two bars 34-35 the length of each of its two chords 
(though not of each individual note) being doubled. 



96 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(e) These few bars serve as a link between the second subject and 
the re-entry of the principal subject. It should be observed that the 
pedal-note is sustained both in the treble and bass during the first three 
bars, .and also that, whilst this note starts as the tonic in the key of F 
major, it ends as the dominant (in the chord of the dominant seventh) 
in B flat major. 

(f) The episode proper or third subject, as some designate it is 
preceded by a transitional passage which, commencing like the previous 
transition, afterwards modulates through G minor to E flat major, in 
which key, in bar 76, the episode itself commences. The full cadence in 
this key which we expect at the end of this melody, in bar 89, is not 
sounded. We have, instead, an interrupted cadence and, two bars later, 
on the cadential repetition, a modulation to C minor, in which key there 
is a sudden return to the opening phrase of the principal subject This 
phrase reappears in the key of B flat starting in the major, and chang- 
ing into the minor mode and prolonged, the music modulating transi- 
ently through G flat major, and E flat minor, back to the key of B flat 
minor. A repetition of the earlier link (e), here lengthened by two bars, 
follows and leads to the recapitulation of the principal subject. 

The chords of the augmented sixth in bars 63, 101 and 102, should 
be noted, also the inversion of parts in 63. Compare the figure in bars 
65 and 67, with bar 5. 

(g) See (c) small type. 

(h) The second subject reappears in the key of the tonic slightly 
lengthened and varied.* 

(j) This passage is founded on the link, bars 36-40, and itself forms 
a connecting link between the recapitulation and the cadenza. 

(k) The introduction of a cadenza into a pianoforte sonata is un- 
usual. Since its main object is to show off the powers and capabilities of 
the soloist, such a passage is rarely to be met with in a work written 
entirely for a single executant. The cadenza is characteristic of a con- 
certo, in which, for a long time, it formed an essential feature. It was 
usually marked to be interpolated, as in this instance, after the recapitu- 
lation, and after a pause on the chord of the J, generally the chord Ic. 
This cadenza refers principally to the opening motive (= two bars) of 
the principal subject, and to the figures from the link, bars 36-40, which 
passage is introduced in its entirety, bars 179-183. It ends with brilliant 
scale passages which lead to the fourth entry of the principal subject. 

* Ridley Prentice points out that the modification* of the passage, in Lar 154. 
was necessitated by the short compass of the old instruments. 



SONATA NO. XIII. 97 

The pedals, the instances of " inversion of parts," the melodic sequence 
over the pedal, bars 186-188, and the harmonic sequence, bars 189-193, 
should all be noted. 

(1) There are three methods of analysing the close of this move- 
ment. 

According to the one given on the accompanying Thematic Scheme, 
there is a partial fourth entry of the principal subject which merges into 
the Coda in bar 206. The latter passage commences with a fragment of 
the second subject (repeated varied), and concludes with several bars re- 
miniscent of the principal subject. 

Again, according to another analysis, the Coda does not commence 
till bar 213, the previous passage, bars 206-2 13 1 , being looked upon as a 
modified ending to the principal subject. These bars, however, are so 
clearly founded upon the close of the second subject that, of the two 
analyses, we incline to the one first given above, an analysis with which 
Ridley Prentice agrees. 

On the other hand, Prout looks upon the whole of the -passage from 
the end, of the cadenza, in bar 198, to the close of the movement, as form- 
ing the Coda. According to his view, therefore, the Coda commences 
with the partial re-entry of the principal subject. 



i 



FANTASIA* IN C MINOR (K. 475), (1785). 
SONATA No. XIV, IN C MINOR (K. 457), (1784). 

THEMATIC SCHEME. 

Adagio 











Molto Allegro 



'. _ : r^m F=- ^ f + 









(a) and (b) Fantasia in C minor. In five short movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT "ADAGIO," IN TWO SECTIONS. 



(c) i, Introductory Passage, founded principally on the opening motive ... 

Double bar. 

(d) ii, Melody in D major, (e) Ternary Form. 

J Fore-phrase ending on half -cadence ... ... 26-273 \ 

\ After-phrase ending with full cadence ... ... JT*-^* 

Double bar and repeat. 
Part ii. 

Two bars, containing slight digression 

(Repetition of fore-phrase of Part i, the original half -cadence being 
j here replaced by an interrupted cadence. 
[ Repetition of after-phrase of Part i. 

Repetition of Parts ii and Hi, modified at the close to lead into the 
lowing movement ... 

Double bar. 



26-293 



29-3-313 
31-3-353 



35-3-41 



* According to Otto Jahn, Mozart himself published this Fantasia in combmation with the 
ata in C minor, as Op. 11, placing the Fantasia first as an introduction to the sonata ^ ^. 
not composed till nearly a twelvemonth later than the latter. Shedlook remarks that the .unity of 
and feeling between the two no doubt led to their juxtaposition. " The Pianoforte Sonata. 



FANTASIA IN C MINOR. 
SECOND MOVEMENT (f) "ALLEGRO," IN TWO SECTIONS. 

i, Passage in the key of A minor, repeated in G minor, and ending on an 
inverted cadence on C as Dominant of F major 

ii, Melody starting in F major, modulating freely, and followed by a long 
link ending with a cadenza on the Dominant seventh in B flat major ... 

Double bar. 



99 



Bars 



42-61 
62-89 



THIRD MOVEMENT (g) " AND ANTING," IN B FLAT MAJOR. BINARY 

Part i. 

Eight-bar sentence, repeated with slight variations ... 
Part ii. 

Eight-bar sentence, repeated with slight variations, ending, the second 
time, tin an interrupted cadence 

Link 

Double bar. 



FORM. 
Bars. 



90-105 



106-121 
122-128 



FOURTH MOVEMENT (h) " PIU ALLEGRO." 

Forms " Connecting Episode,' 1 modulating from G minor to C minor. It is 
in no special "Form" ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Double bar. 



Bars. 



129-164 



FIFTH MOVEMENT (j) "TEMPO PRIMO." 

Repetition, in the key of C minor, of the opening passage of the "Adagio," 
much shortened and modified 

Double bar. 



Bars. 



165-180 



(a)* Sonata in C minor. In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT" ALLEGRO MOLTO," IN C MINOR. SONATA FORM. 
EXPOSITION. Bars. FREE FANTASIA. RECAPITULATION. Bars. 



(b) First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Transition (overlap- 

ping). 

Second Subject in E 
flat major (relative 
major). 

(d) ffl. 36-591. 1 
<e) \ 2. 59-2-711. J 
(f) Link (overlapping). 

Double bar and repeat. 



1-191 
19-35 



36-711 



71-74 



(g) Bars 7599. 



First Subject in Tonic. 
(h) Transition (overlap- 

ping) shortened and 

altered. 
(j) Second Subject in Tonic 

minor (slightly length- 

ened) . 

f 1. 131-1561. \ 

\ 2. 156-2-168L J 
(k) Double bar and repeat. 
(1) Coda (overlapping). 



100-1181 
118-130 
131-1681 

168-185 



These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 



t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



100 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ADAGIO," IN E FLAT MAJOR, (a) OLD RONDO FORM. 



(b) Principal Subject (first entry) 

(c) Episode I, in B flat major (Dominant) 

Principal Subject (second entry) varied with ornamentation 

(d) Episode II, in A flat major (Subdominant), and G flat major 
Principal Subject (third entry) with further varied, and more florid, 

ornamentation 

(e) Coda 



Bars. 



1-7 

8-16 

17-23 

24-40 

41-473 
474-57 



THIRD MOVEMENT" ALLEGRO ASSA1," IN C MINOR, (a) RONDO-SONATA FORM. 



PART I. 
EXPOSITION. 



Bars. 



PART II. 
EPISODE. 



PART III. 
RECAPITULATION. 



Bars. 



(b) Principal Subject in 
Tonic (first entry). 
( 1. 1-161. \ 
\ 2. 163-44. J 



(c) Link. 

(d) Second Subject in E 
flat major (relative 
major). 

/ 1. 47-741. 
\ 2. 74-2-96. 

(e) Link. 

(f) Principal Subject in 
Tonic (second entry) 
incomplete. With 
Link. 



1-44 

45-46 

47-96 

96-2-102 

103-145 



(g) Bars 146-166. 



(h) Second Subject (in 
Tonic) merging to- 
wards the end into a 
"link-like" passage 
which leads to the Re- 
capitulation of the 
Principal Subject. 
1. 168-1971. 
2. and "link" 

197-2-220. 
Alternative Analy-\ 

sis. 

Second Subject 168 1 
-2051. ( 

Transitional p a s- 
sage 205-2220. ' 
(j) 'Principal Subject in 
Tonic (third entry) in- 
complete. With Link. 
f 1. 221-2481.) 
\ 2. 2483-274. J 
(k) Repetition of portion 

of Episode. 
(1) Coda. 



168-220 



221-274 



275-287 
288-319 



FANTASIA IN C MINOR. 

(a) " Five movements, in various keys and tempos, are closely bound 
together into a whole by connecting passages or harmonic inflections. 
Each movement, though not completely separate, has yet a certain inde- 
pendence, with melodies of its own rounded into a simple song-like form; 
there is no attempt at the elaboration, or even the full development, of a 
motif, but everything presses onwards, each section leading as of neces- 
sity to the next, which is intended to form a lively contrast to what has 
preceded it. In spite of the predominance of a slow tempo, the whole work 



FANTASIA IN C MINOR. IOI 

has a restless character, and the recurrence at the end of the serious and 
sustained commencement leads only to a provisional and unsatisfying 
conclusion. In spite of its length the fantasia preserves the character 
of an introduction, though not of necessity to the sonata with which it 
is printed. The mood which is so distinctly expressed in the two first 
bars of the Adagio is preserved throughout the Fantasia; it is a sad 
and sorrowful mood of doubting and questioning, of struggling and 
striving, of longing for deliverance from a heavy burden, for freedom 
from doubt and care; disheartened by failure, unrefreshed by consola- 
tion, it sinks at last into itself and is heard no more."* 

(b) It is of interest to note the absence of the key signatures from 
this Fantasia. With the exception of that in the third movement the 
Andantino Mozart has, whether by design or accident, omitted all key 
signatures throughout the work. 

(c) The opening passage in this movement may well be looked upon 
as an introduction to the whole Fantasia. t It is mainly built on repeti- 
tions of the opening figure, with modulation into a new key at nearly 
every repetition. Bars 3 and 4 are in B flat minor. J In bar 5, the music 
modulates into D flat major. In bar 8 the chord is approached as the 
last inversion of the dominant minor ninth in the above-mentioned key 
fAtJ = BpU), and it resolves on to the second inversion of the chord of 
E flat minor. In bar 10, the key changes enharmonically into B major. 
Here, also, the parts are inverted and the passage continues over a chro- 
matically descending bass. In bar 16, there is a further enharmonic 
change, again from the chord of E flat minor into the key of B major. 
Bar 17 is in B minor, after which, in bar 18, the key changes to G major. 
In 21, there is a further modulation to B minor, the introductory passage 
ending at the double bar on a reiterated half -cadence in this key. The 
imitation between the tenor and alto parts, in bar 21, which is written 
on the chord of the augmented sixth, should be noted. 

(d) This melody, though written with four crotchets to the bar, is 
.virtually in J time, each of its two-bar phrases being, therefore, equiva- 
lent in length to the normal four-bar phrase. Each part of the melody 
is, as usual, repeated, but on account of the slight modification at the 
end, the second double bar and repeat marks are omitted, and the repeti- 
tion of Parts II and III is written out in full. 



"Life of Mozart," Otto Jalm, translated by P. Townsend. 
f Whilst a shortened and modified repetition of it brings the work to a close. 
\ Bare 3 and 4 are by some considered to be in the key of F major. 



102 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



(e) We have classified this little melody as in ternary form. At the 
same time we would point out to the student that although the impres- 
sion given by the music after the digression seems very decidedly one of 
a return to the commencement of the melody, still, owing to one particu- 
lar feature in it, the form is not so emphatically ternary as to preclude 
the possibility of others looking upon it as binary. 

The melody, therefore, comes under the category of those little pieces 
which Mr. Macpherson styles as "hybrid" in form, the cause, however, 
of the indefmiteness, in this instance, differs somewhat from that in either 
of the previous examples with which we have already met in these son- 
atas,* and is of sufficient interest to merit closer examination. 

As we have hitherto had occasion to remark, the nature of the return 
is the point of paramount importance to be observed when having to de- 
termine as between binary and ternary form.t In other words, is the 
return, after the digression, made to the first, or to the second, phrase of 
Part I? in this instance, are bars 32-33 a repetition of 26-27, or of 
28-29? I n tabular form, the difference between these two theories, in 
this case, is clearly shown, thus : 

(i) If bars' 32-33 are considered to be a reproduction of bars 
26-27 (the first -phrase of Part I) the form of the melody is 
ternary, and the latter part of the movement will be ana- 
lysed as follows : 

Bars 30-31 the digression = Part IT. 

Bars 32-33 the return = the fore-phrase of Part HI. 

Bars 34-35 = the after-phrase of Part III. 

And bars 36-41 = the repetition of Parts II and III. 

(ii) If, on the other hand, bars 32-33 are considered to be a repe- 
tition of bars 28-29 (^ /le second phrase of Part I), the form 
of the melody is binary, and the whole of the above portion 
of the movement will constitute Part II, thus : 

Bars 30-31 the digression form the fore-phrase of Part II. 
Bars 32-33 the return form the after-phrase of Part II. 
Bars 34-35 form a cadential repetition of this after-phrase. 
And the whole of bars 36-41 = a repetition of Part II. 

Now as, in this melody, the first half of each phrase in Part I is 
alike, even those who would look upon the form as binary must admit 
that the impression of the return, in bar 32, is, at least, as strongly one 



* Compare with Sonata VI, Finale (a) ; Sonata VIII, Finale (h) ; and Sonata XI. 
first movement (b). 

t See Sonata VIII, Finale, footnote || to (h), page 53. 



FANTASIA IN C MINOR. 1 03 

of a return to the first phrase, as it is of a return to the second. In order, 
therefore, even to conjecture which of the two phrases Mozart is really 
repeating we must refer to their second halves, and here we find a certain 
element for doubt. For, whilst the first beat of bar 33 (in the first 
phrase of the return) is exactly similar to the corresponding- point at the 
end of the first phrase of Part I thus favouring the view of ternary 
form the melody of the actual cadence which follows, corresponds to 
that at the end of the second phrase of Part I a typical feature of the 
binary form. But there is this important difference, viz., that the cadence 
now is not a repetition of the perfect cadence found at the close of Part I, 
it is modified into an interrupted cadence. And following this, is a 
second phrase the exact counterpart of the after-phrase in Part I (in- 
cluding the characteristic perfect cadence) which can, therefore, con- 
sistently be looked upon as the after-phrase in Part III. 

Summed up, the foregoing three factors,* considered in conjunction, 
go far to establish the ternary nature and characteristics inherent in the 
music. 

(f) This little movement opens with a passage of nine bars in the 
key of A minor. The passage is immediately repeated in G minor, 
lengthened by two extra bars, which modulate, and lead into the second 
portion of the movement, commencing in the key of F major. Like the 
previous passage, this portion starts with two bars of bass accompani- 
ment only. The first phrase of the succeeding melody appears in the 
major mode, and is repeated in the minor, and it is followed by several 
bars which modulate through D flat major, and E flat minor, to D flat 
minor, enharmonically changed, in bar 78, to C sharp minor. A long 
connecting passage follows, over a continuation of the already chromatic- 
ally descending bass. This ends with a short cadenza (on the dominant 
seventh in B flat major), which leads into the succeeding movement the 
Andantino in the new key. 

(g) This melody is in binary form for, in this instance, not only is 



* These three factors are : 

(i) The strong impression, after the digression, of a return to the commencement 
of the melody. 

(ii) The modification of the cadence, in bar 33, i.e., its alteration from a perfect, 
into a middle cadence, thus converting it into a more usual ending for a fore-phrase; 
and 

(iii) This phrase being followed by another, which is a complete and unaltered 
repetition of the after-phrase of Part I, and which therefore forms a perfectly normal 
after-phrase to Part III. 



104 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

its shape distinctly binary,* but there is no doubt that the " return " is to 
the second phrase of Part I (see e). Yet, because of the fact that here 
again the two phrases of Part 1 commence alike, though only to the extent 
of the initial four-note figure, there is a momentary feeling as if the re- 
turn, after the slight digression with which Part II commences, were going 
to be to the commencement of the melody. Hence Percy Goetschius de- 
signates its form as "incipient three-part song-form." 

The dominant pedal, over which the first phrase of Part II is written, 
should be noted, as also the interrupted cadence with its momentary sug- 
gestion of the relative minor key (bar 121), which replaces the expected 
final perfect cadence. The link, founded on previous figures in the move- 
ment, forms an ascending modulating sequence, passing from the key 
of B flat major, through C minor, to D minor. Bar 128 modulates to 
G minor, and leads to the next section of the Fantasia the " Piu Alle- 
gro" which commences in this key. 

(h) This section may be looked upon as a connecting episode between 
the previous melody and the final section of the Fantasia. Like the in- 
troductory passage with which this series of small movements opens, this 
one is not only written in no special " form," but it is also essentially 
modulatory in character and, too, it is founded for a great part on one 
motive, in the present instance the groundwork of the bass in the opening 
bars, 129-130. It commences sequentially, the first six bars, in fact, form- 
ing a real sequence which modulates from G minor, through F minor, 
and E flat minor, to D flat major. Thence, touching the keys of B flat 
minor, and G flat major, and momentarily suggesting others, the passage 
at length reaches a definite cadence in the key of A flat major, in bar 
142. In 145, it modulates to F minor, in 151, to G minor, and in 155, to 
C minor. The section ends on the dominant ninth in the last-named key, 
and thus leads to the final movement of the Fantasia. 

It is interesting to note that until this return to C minor, the key of 
the tonic has not been heard since it was quitted at the very commence- 
ment of the Fantasia, i.e., after the first two bars of the opening Adagio. 

(j) In this movement, the following details should be noted, viz., 
that 

(i) Bar 169 forms the chord of the Neapolitan sixth in C minor, 
and that it resolves, in the succeeding bar, on to the first 
inversion of the chromatic supertonic ninth; 

* I.e., an eigh1>bar sentence (repeated) = Part I, responded to by a second 
eight-bar sentence (repeated) = Part II. The link at the end in no way modifies the 
binary " shape " of the movement. It is an addition after the form has been clearly 
established. 



SONATA NO. XIV. 105 

(ii) In bars 174-176, the parts are inverted, and that they are 
re-inverted in the latter half of the last-named bar; 

(iii) In bars 173-174 (repeated in bars 176-177) the perfect 
cadence is approached through a passing modulation to the 
key of the subdominant minor. 

In writing of a somewhat similar passage, Banister describes it as " a momentary 
modulation suggested to the key of the subdominant, which is, as it were, an ex- 
tension of the idea of the plagal cadence, but is here followed by the dominant har- 
mony as though for yet further confirmation of the original key in contradiction to 
the suggested modulation." 



SONATA NO. XIV. 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(.a) *" Without question this is the most important of all Mozart's 
pianoforte sonatas. Surpassing all the others by reason of the fire and 
passion which, to its last note, breathe through it, it foreshadows the 
pianoforte sonata, as it was destined to become in the hands of Beet- 
hoven." 

t" From among the sonatas the three in A minor, C minor, and F, 
stand out with special prominence. In the first, as regards the writing, 
virtuosity asserts itself, and, in the third, contrapuntal skill ; but in the 
second, the greatness of music makes us forget the means by which that 
greatness is achieved. The Sonatas in A minor and F are wonderful 

productions, yet they stand a little lower than the C minor The 

last movement is no mere Rondo, but one which stands in close relation- 
ship to the opening Allegro; they both have the same tragic spirit; both 
seem the outpouring of a soul battling with fate. The slow movement 
reveals Mozart's gift of melody and graceful ornamentation, yet beneath 
the latter runs a vein of earnestness ; the theme of the middle section 
expresses subdued sadness. The affinity between this work and Beet- 
hoven's Sonata (Op. 10, No. i) in the same key is very striking." 



* Translated from the note to this sonata in Kochel's Catalogue. 
t "The Pianoforte Sonata," J. S. Shedlock. Remarks on Sonatas Nos. 8, 
14 and 15. 



106 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(b) Two points of detail to be noticed in the first subject are, that 

(i) Bars 9-13 are written over a dominant pedal; and 

(ii) The upper parts in bars Q 4 -ii 2 are inverted in the following 
bars. 

(c) The transition overlaps the first subject, and starts with a repeti- 
tion of the opening motive of this subject, taken an octave higher, lol- 
lowed, in bars 21-22, by still another repetition of the same motive, taken 
in the bass alone and on the dominant chord in E flat major. A new 
melody in the latter key commences in the next bar, followed by a link 
which leads into yet another fresh melody the second subject in the 
same key. 

Despite the fact that the first new melody (starting in 23) .is in E 
flat the key of the second subject* we have marked the passage as a 
portion of the transition, and not as the commencement of the second 
subject because : 

(i) It does not appear again in the recapitulation, but is there 
replaced by a fresh melodious passage; and 

(ii) The nature of the bars (3O 4 ~35) which immediately follow, 
is characteristic of the close of a transition, and these bars 
are reproduced in the recapitulation. 

That this view, which is supported by various authorities, is, how- 
ever, open to a certain element of doubt is shown by Banister's remarks 
on the exposition in this movement. He says : " No. XIV has a first sub- 
ject of eighteen bars, entirely in C minor, followed by a modulating 
passage of four bars derived' from that subject, leading to the second 
subject in E flat, which is of considerable extent, if all in that key is to 
be considered as one subject, having, it may be said, three principal divi- 
sions and then the Codetta." 

It is of interest to note that whilst Beethoven frequently makes use 
of the method of starting his transitions as if the first subject were about 
to recommence, instances of such treatment are comparatively rarely to 
be met with in the works of Haydn and Mozart. See, however, the first 
movement of Sonata VIII, in A minor. 

In the first movement of Sonata XIII, where the transition also com- 
mences with the opening motive of the first subject, and the greater part 
of the continuation of the passage is worked on the same figure, the first 



* In Sonata VIII, in A minor, Mozart has similarly chosen the key of the rela- 
tive major for his second subject. 



SONATA NO. XIV. IO./ 

bar alone is in the key of the tonic, the music modulating immediately 
after to the key of the second subject. (Compare it with the passage 
now under discussion in the present movement.) 

And, again, in the first movement of Sonata XV, where the transi- 
tion is founded entirely on the opening motive of the first subject, the 
transition does not even start in the key of the tonic. 

(d) Details to be noticed in this passage are : 

(i) The inversion of the parts, where the hands cross, in bars 

38-39 and 42-43 ; 
(ii) The sequential repetition of the first phrase of the subject, 

bars 40-43 ; and 
(iii) The chord of the Italian sixth in F minor, which occurs 

both in bars 44 and 49. 

(e) A very important feature to note is that this section and the 
second section of the second subject in the Finale of this sonata, are 
founded on the same motive. (Compare with bars 74, etc., in the latter 
movement.) 

(f) This link forms an exceptional feature in these sonatas. Through 
out the whole of the quick movements in this form, it is the only instance 
to be met with in which such a passage occurs at the end of the exposi- 
tion.* It is founded on the first subject and, overlapping the last note 
of the second subject,f it modulates in the last bar, thus leading both 
back to the repetition of the exposition, and onwards, into the free fan- 
tasia. 

Stewart Macpherson points out that, though such passages are to 
be met v/ith frequently in the works of modern writers, with earlier com- 
posers, the exposition, m movements in sonata-form, almost invariably 
ended with a somewhat strongly marked perfect cadence in the secondary 

tey.J 

(g) With the exception of four bars (79-82), which reproduce in the 
key of F minor a portion of the melody from the transition, the free 
fantasia is worked entirely on the opening motive of the first subject. 
The section starts with this figure on the chord of C major, quitted as 
the dominant of F minor. In bar 85, there is a modulation to G minor, 
the parts being inverted, and, in 89, to C minor. Banister marks the 



* Short links are, however, also to be found in the slow movements of Sonatas 
V and XIII, both of which are written in sonata-form. 

f It is quite a possible view to consider that the second subject ends on the first 
beat in bar 67, and that the remaining bars of the exposition form a codetta. 

I "Form in Music," by Stewart Macpherson. 



io8 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



chord in bars 89-90, as that of the rarely-used second inversion of the 
diminished triad on the leading-note, here a derivative, or incomplete in- 
version, of dominant harmony. The doubled leading-note should be 
noted. 

The harmony of these bars can also be considered as an inversion of the chord 
of the dominant ninth. The progression of the A flat the ninth which is heard on 
the third beat in both bars, is, each time, as much in keeping with its character as 
ninth) as it is if the note is looked upon merely as an unessential discord. 

(h) The transition here, as in the original passage, overlaps the first 
subject, with the opening figure of which it commences. It is varied, 
however, by imitational working between the parts. The passage is 
shortened and modified, the melody in E flat, which occurs in the ori- 
ginal transition (commencing bar 23) being omitted, and a few bars of 
entirely new matter, in the key of D flat major, inserted in its place. (See 
(c), par. ii.) 

(j) The second subject, slightly modified, reappears in the key of 
the tonic, in the minor mode, however, instead of in its tonic major (see 
Sonata VIII, in A minor, first movement (j) and footnote), page 50. 

(k) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 

(1) The coda is founded on the first subject. It starts like the link, 
only with inversion of the parts. The opening few bars, during which 
the imitation between the treble and bass is continued, are sequential. 
(See Sonata V, second movement (k), par. ii, page 30.) 

A very interesting point to notice in this movement is the great importance 
which Mozart gives to the bold opening motive of the first subject. With the excep- 
tion of the second subject, each of the more important divisions throughout the move- 
ment commence with this figure and, too, the free fantasia is founded almost en- 
tirely on it. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) In most analyses this movement is classified as in the older rondo 
form. Banister, however, first analyses it as in episodical form thus : 
Part I, bars 1-23; the episode, bars 24-40; Part III and Coda, 41-57; but 
he adds afterwards "perhaps it may be reckoned as having two (i.e., 
episodes), that which I have reckoned as the second part of the -first sub- 
ject, being considered as an episode" Percy Goetschius classifies it as 
in "fully developed five-part form," of which he considers it to be an 
example "unusually broad in design, approaching a certain grade of the 
higher forms." At the same time, he looks upon the form as being more 
nearly allied to that of the song-form with two trios, than to that of the 
ordinary rondo form. The latter, he remarks, is "more compact, more 



SONATA NO. XIV. IOQ 

coherent and continuous* and more highly developed. This manifests 
itself in the relation of the themes to each other which, despite external 
contrast, is more intimate than that between the principal and subordinate 
song (or Trio); further, in the transitional passages from one theme into 
the other (especially the re-transition or 'returning passage'); in the 
customary elaboration of the recurring principal theme; and in the almost 
indispensable Coda, which often assumes considerable importance, and 
an elaborate form and character." t 

(b) As written, the principal subject is a sentence of seven bars in 
length, there being an elision of a bar (presumably the third) in the first 
half of the sentence. This is an instance, however, in which Mozart has 
evidently barred his movement incorrectly. If each bar, as it now ap- 
pears, be divided into two, and the time thus changed from four, to two, 
crotchets in the bar, we shall find that the music is written as Mozart 
evidently intended it to be played. 

As it is now written, the subject subdivides very unusually into regu- 
lar one-bar sections, each section ending on a definite cadence, the cadence 
itself as regularly occurring in the second, and weaker, half of the bar. 
When written according to the other method, the sentence subdivides into 
two-bar sections, in each of which the cadence falls in a normal position, 
viz., in the second usually the more strongly accented of the two bars. 

(c) In this melody, the sentence is prolonged by cadential repetitions 
from bar 13, to bar I6 1 . The remainder of bar 16 forms a link on the 
dominant harmony in E flat, which leads to the second entry of the prin- 
cipal subject. The link starts on the fourth inversion of the dominant 
eleventh, in which, first the major ninth gives place to the minor ninth, 
and then, as is so frequently to be met with, both ninth and eleventh re- 
solve, and the root position of the dominant seventh remains. 

The chord on the fourth beat, in bar 12, should also be noted. Ac- 
cording to the views of some theorists, this chord would be considered 
to be approached here as the chromatic chord I[, 9b , in C minor, through 
which key there is transient modulation, and to be quitted as II(, 9b , in the 
key of B flat major. Others, however, would not consider that there is 
even a passing modulation to C minor, in this bar. In this case, the 
fourth chord would, of course, be regarded as being both approached 
and quitted as the chord of II(> 9 b, in the key of B flat major.J 

(d) This episode starts with a melody in A flat, the key of the sub- 
dominant, which modulates, and the first part ends on an inverted cadence 

* Banister aptly speaks of the "circular impulse " of a Rondo. 

f See " Lessons in Music Form." 
| See Sonata III, Finale, footnote * to (k), page 20. 



i io MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

in B flat major (bar 31). The second part commences in G flat 
major, with a repetition of the opening bars of the above melody, fol- 
lowed by a modulating sequential passage, which passes through the keys 
of A flat minor, B flat minor, to C minor, and closes with a half-cadence, 
C minor VI G .6V. Two further bars modulate to the original key of 
E flat major, and lead into the third entry of the principal subject. 

(e) The coda, founded upon the principal subject and the flrst epi- 
sode, ends with a, repetition of the concluding bars of the latter, trans- 
posed into the key of the tonic. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) See first movement (a), par. ii. 

This movement, like the Finale in Sonata IX, is in undoubted rondo- 
sonata-form. Like each of the previous Finales in rondo form in these 
sonatas, it also exhibits certain unusual features.* 

(b) The principal subject is unusually long and varied. It consists 
of two sections, each ending with a perfect cadence in the tonic. As the 
second of these sections itself contains two distinct musical ideas (com- 
mencing respectively in bars 16 and 26), Banister describes the subject 
as " threefold." 

(c) There is no passage of transition ; a single chord on the dominant 
seventh in E flat major, serves as a connecting link, and leads into this 
key, in which the second subject appears. 

(d) The point of paramount importance to notice in this subject is 
that its second section is founded on the same figure as the correspond- 
ing section of the second subject in the first movement of this sonata 
(compare with first movement, bars 59-60, etc.). 

Both first and second sections of the subject are prolonged by caden- 
tial repetitions. In the first section this lengthening takes place at the 
end of a middle phrase, in the second section, at the very end, after the 
repetition of the sentence, f The tonic pedal on which the subject com- 
mences should be noted, as also the chord progressions in E flat major : 
(i) Jtiv'b, PVI G . 6 V (bars 56-58), 



and (ii) JfivV, 1, V I3 , V 7 (bars 72-73). 



* Of this Rondo, Banister writes : "There is nothing in it of the disjointedness 
which sometimes marks a Hondo, although there are many rests and pauses, which 
are of great power." 

f Alternatively the second subject may be considered to end in bar 90, the link 
commencing in bar 91. 



SONATA NO. XIV. Ill 

(e) These few bars modulate from E flat major to C minor, and form 
a connecting passage leading- into the second entry of the principal sub- 
ject. 

(f) At this entry, on the repetition of the second section, the last 
phrase of the principal subject is omitted. In its place, we hear the 
immediately preceding figure reproduced on the chord of the diminished 
seventh in F minor, in which key the following episode commences. 

(g) This episode is notably short. 

The episode occurring at this point of a sonata-rondo is usually of 
some length, on which account it is often known as the long episode. 
This one consists solely of a short passage, taken first in the key of F 
minor, modulating to G minor, and then repeated in G minor, modulating 
to C minor (the tonic), and thus leading to Part III, the recapitulation, of 
the movement. 

(h) It is of interest to note that at this point the construction of the 
movement resembles that of a movement in sonata form, in which the 
recapitulation of the second subject is taken irregularly before that of the 
first subject (compare with Sonata IX, first movement. See also Finale, 
in Sonata VII). 

Both sections of the subject are somewhat lengthened, the second 
being also much modified towards the close. Instead of terminating for a 
second time on a perfect cadence in the tonic, the sentence, on being re- 
peated, merges halfway through into a passage based on figures from the 
principal subject, into the recapitulation of which subject it directly leads. 

In some analyses of this movement, the recapitulation of the second subject is 
marked as definitely terminating on the perfect cadence in bar 205, the " connecting '' 
passage being considered to commence immediately afterwards with the repetition 
of the opening bars of the second section. 

(j) The first section of the principal subject reappears considerably 
lengthened, whilst the termination of the second section is modified in 
similar manner to that at the previous entry. The greater part of the 
lengthening above mentioned, is produced by "augmentation" at the end 
of each little phrase in the passage marked " a piacere," which is based on 
figures from the previously heard opening bars of the principal subject. 
The constant pauses, in combination with the ad libitum variations of 
tempo, which the above words indicate, convert the passage into what 
Banister describes as " somewhat of the nature of a recitative." 



112 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

The passing modulation to the key of the subdominant minor (bars 
234, etc.), and the chromatic supertonic triad and discords (bars 242-245) 
should be noted. 

(k) The first portion of the episode, modified so as to end with a 
perfect cadence in C minor (the tonic), is here interpolated between the 
close of the principal subject and the commencement of the ccda. 

(1) The coda is founded on the second subject. Bar 298 forms the 
chord of the Neapolitan sixth in C minor. 

Ridley Prentice marks the coda as commencing in bar 262. 



(a)* SONATA No. XVt, IN F MAJOR. 

First two movements (K. 533), (1788). Finale (K. 494), (1786). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 

Allgro 



jzizcn: 




A-? yfa , 

Bpflfczfr 



I ^^ 



In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT " ALLEGRO," IN F MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(b) First Subject in Tonic. 

ic) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition. 

Second Subject in C 
major (Dominant), 
(d) ft 1. 413-66L1 
(e) t 2. 662-891. J 

(f) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-321 
324-411 

413-891 
89-102 


(g) Bars 1024-1452 


(h) First Subject in Tonic 
(first 8 bars only), 
(j) Bridge-passage or 
Transition (length- 
ened). 
Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
[First . 1683-1931. 
(k) J Second . 1932-2261. 
L( greatly length- 
ened) . 
detta in Tonic, 
(m) Double bar and repeat. 


1454-1532 

1534-1681 
1683-2261 

226-239 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE," IN B FLAT MAJOR (KEY OF THE SUBDOMINANT). 

(a) SONATA FORM. 



(b) EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Transition. 
Second Subject in F 
major (Dominant), 
(d) J 1. 23-331.) 
(e) \ 2. 333-46. J 

Double bar and repeat. 


1-18 
19-22 
23-46 


(f) Bars 47-72. 


(g) First Subject in Tonic 
(incomplete). 
Transition, 
(h) Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
f 1. 91-1011. \ 
t 2. 1013-1141. J 
(j) Coda. 
Double bar and repeat 


73-86 
87-90 

91-1141 
114-122 



* Theeo index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which- occur in the subsequent 
text. 

t See Sonata XIV, first movement (a), paragraph ii, page 105. 
J The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 

9 






114 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

THIRD MOVEMENT " RONDO " ALLEGRETTO, IN F MAJOR, (a) OLDER RONDO 

FORM. 

Bars. 



(b) Principal Subject (first entry). Ternary Form ... 150 

f Part i, Melody in F major 1-12 

I Part ii. Founded on figures in first melody ... ... ... 13-38 

I Part iii, Repetition of Part i, slightly varied 39-50 

(c) Episode I ... , ... ... ... 51-82 

I First section. Melody in D minor 51-67^ 
Link ... 67 
Second section, Melody in B flat major ... ... ... 68-793' 
Modulating and ending on a half-cadence in F minor. 
Link, leading to 79-3-82 

Principal Subject (second entry), first twelve bars only 8394 

(d) Episode II, " Minor e," in F minor (Tonic minor) Ternary Form 95-116 

,Part i in F minor and A flat major 95-102 \ 

Double bar and repeat. 
Part ii, Passage modulating and ending on half-cadence in F I 

minor 103-108 [ 

Part iii, Repetition of Part i in the key of F minor ... 109-116 I 

Double bar and repeat. 

*Link (Maggiore) leading to 116a 119 

Principal Subject (third entry), partial reappearance only ... ... 120151 

ila) Repetition of Part i, varied slightly 120-1313 ^ 
Link of five notes 1313-4 
(b) Repetition of portion of Part ii (bars 19-30) ... ... 132-151* I 
transposed into the key of the Tonic, and merging into 
a connecting passage leading to the J 
(f) Coda ... 152-187 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) It is rather an interesting fact that Mozart wrote the Finale of this 
sonata about eighteen months before the first two* movements. The latter 
were composed as an independent work, and with no idea of their being 
thus incorporated with the earlier written movement. The Rondo was 
written in 1786, and was one of various short pianoforte pieces composed 
for particular occasions and persons during Mozart's Vienna period. 
Otto Jahn remarks that "it has been arbitrarily but not altogether unsuit- 
ably combined into one sonata with two other movements, composed on 
January 8, 1788." 

These movements are not included amongst the sonatas, in Kochel's 
Catalogue, but are entered simply as " Allegro and Andante fur Klavier,' 
No. 533, whilst the Rondo is entered as "Rondo fur Klavier," No. 485. 

(b) This subject is of somewhat unusual length for Mozart and, with 
one exception (viz., in the Finale of Sonata XII, where the first subject is 



SONATA NO. XV. n^ 

extended to thirty-five bars) is the longest one to be met with in move- 
ments in this form throughout his pianoforte sonatas. The length is 
caused by constant repetitions wherein inversion of the parts is a promin- 
ent feature. The construction of the subject, and its variety of treatment, 
should be carefully studied. Points to be noted are: 

The tonic pedal, bars 4-8 ; the transference of the melody to the bass 
in bar 8, and the consequent inversion of the parts when the accompani- 
ment enters in bar 12; the tonal sequence (bars 16-17) which forms a new 
continuation to the phrase which starts in 13 (compare with bars 5-8), but 
which makes a fresh start in 15, with the parts re-inverted; and the inter- 
rupted cadence, bars 21-22, which leads to a cadential repetition of the 
preceding passage. This repetition commences with the parts again 
.inverted, and culminates in the very interesting imitational passage 
founded on the opening motive, bars 27-32, with which the subject closes. 

(c) The transition is founded entirely on the opening bars of the first 
subject. Although this subject ends on the first beat of bar 32, and the 
transition does not commence till the fourth beat, the imitational passage, 
which starts in bar 27, continues unbroken till bar 37, the bass taking up 
the imitational figures during the break. The remainder of the transition 
is worked on a portion four notes only of the opening motive of the 
first subject, the passage ending on a half close in C minor: VI It 6 V.* 
Thus we meet here with another instance in which the key of the second 
subject is approached through that of its tonic minor. t Bar 3Q 1 forms 
the first inversion of the chromatic supertonic ninth in C minor. 

Richter concurs with the view that the first subject continues to bar 
32 (see the accompanying Thematic Scheme). On the other hand, Dr. 
Fisher considers that the first subject ends, and the transition commences, 
in bar 8. Had there been a full close in bar 16, at the end of the repeti- 
tion of the opening melody, he would have looked upon these bars as a 
part of the first subject. As it is, however, he considers that the whole 
passage, from bar 8 4 to bar 41, must be regarded as the bridge passage. 
He does not consider that the cadence, in bar 32 (though he marks it as 
the end of the second sentence) causes any break in the passage. 

In cases such as this, where it is possible that more than one opinion may be 
held, a comparison between the corresponding portions of the exposition and the 
recapitulation is very often a guide in helping to a decision. In this instance, how- 

* Richter calls this cadence a half-cadence in G major, and that at the end of 
the second transition (bars 167-168) a half-cadence in C major. 

f See first movements, Sonatas VIII and XII. 



Il6 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

ever, the first portion of the exposition is so curtailed on its repetition in the re- 
capitulation i.e., from forty-one bars in length to twenty-three that such com- 
parison throws no light upon the point in question. 

(d) The first of the two sections into which the second subject 
divides, is worked entirely on its own first phrase (bars 4I 3 ~45 2 ). The 
responsive phrase commences a tone higher, in the key of D minor, with 
the same opening motive, accompanied in the bass by a figure of which 
rather prominent use is made during the movement. For not only is the 
figure itself variously worked both above and below the subject, but the 
principal motive of the second of this subject is also founded upon it. 
After closing with a perfect cadence in its original key of C major, 
the foregoing sentence is repeated varied, commencing with the melody 
transferred to the bass. This is answered, in the treble, a half -bar later 
by imitation at the octave, whilst, in the second phrase, the triplet figures 
in the bass of bar 54, are answered in contrary motion in the treble of 55. 
The remainder of the section consists principally of variations on the 
same motive, taken alternately in the treble and bass. It ends on an in- 
verted cadence in G major. The bass, in bars 57 4 -59 1 , should be com- 
pared with that in bars 45 4 ~47 1 , and its inverse movement noted. 

(e) The second section commences with a new phrase* announced in 
the bass alone, ending, bar /o 1 , on the note G, which note is prolonged, 
and forms a pedal. Over this pedal the previous phrase, transferred to 
the treble, is repeated and much lengthened, and with imitation between 
the upper parts. It starts in bar 73, in which the tenor is a free imita- 
tion, by inverse movement, of the treble in 72, and then continues for two 
further bars in close imitation of the same voice, at the interval of a 
fourth below. The phrase ends, bar 78 1 , on a perfect cadence in D minor. 
Bars 78-82 1 , modulating back to the key of C major, give the impression 
of being a cadential repetition though a very modified one of the latter 
part of the preceding passage, which is further prolonged through the use 
of the interrupted cadence (bars 81-82). The latter leads to still further 
cadential extensions which continue to bar 8Q 1 , where the second subject 
finally closes on a perfect cadence in C major. 

The alteration from the chromatic supertonic harmony, in bars 82 
and 84, to that of the chord of the German sixth, in 86, with the corres- 
ponding and effective modification of the scale passage, should be care- 
fully noted. Also the unusual method of writing a dot, in the place of a 
tied note, on the first beat of the bar, in the syncopated passage, 
bars 74-75. 

* The opening figure is, however, founded on that in the bass, bars 45M7*. 



SONATA NO. XV. 1 17 

In his book, "Die Grundziige der Musikalischen Formen," Richter 
analyses the movement, not only as regards its "form," but with special 
reference to its subdivision into sentences and phrases. We have already 
drawn attention to two details of key in which our views do not concur, 
and we shall now discuss the question as to the phrasing of a passage 
upon which again our views differ. 

In the second section of the second subject we have marked the per- 
fect cadence in D minor, bars 77-78, as forming the dividing point between 
two phrases. Richter, however, considers that the second phrase ends 
earlier, viz., in and with bar 75, and that the third extends from bar j6 to 
bar 81. Whether he looks upon the phrase as closing with the end of 
bar 75, as his text would seem to imply, and as is actually marked on 
his accompanying excerpt from the music, or whether he considers it to 
take place on the first beat of the following bar, we are equally unable 
to follow the reasoning of his analysis. We have marked bar 78 as the 
close of the second phrase for the twofold reason, viz., that (i) there is 
a definite perfect cadence at that point, and (ii) this cadence is immedi- 
ately followed by what (as above mentioned) gives an undoubted im- 
pression of forming a cadential repetition free and extended though it 
be of the latter part of the preceding passage. If, however, the phrase 
is considered to close instead with the end of bar 75, we shall find, on 
the one hand, that the division between the phrases takes place between 
the last two notes of the imitational passage, the bass, at this point, taking 
up the imitation. And, on the other hand, by marking the new phrase, 
in this instance, as commencing on the strong accent, an instance in which 
there is no question of overlapping of the -phrases, it is being considered 
to start on a chord whose bass note is the final note of the preceding 
passage of imitation. 

And even if we consider that the phrase continues the one beat 
further and ends on the accent, in bar 76, thus obviating the above objec- 
tions, we still do not feel we have reached its close. For the whole of 
bar 76 is written on the second inversion of the chord of D minor, used 
cadentially, and leaves the ear waiting for the following perfect cadence 
in this key, of which this bar forms the antepenultimate chord. 

(f) The triplet figures in the codetta are derived from the first sec- 
tion of the second subject. The whole of the passage (bars 89-102) is 
usually looked upon as forming the codetta. Dr. Fisher, however, con- 
siders that bars 89-95 form a third section of the second subject, and 
that the codetta only commences in bar 95. For the reasons given below 
we prefer the former analysis : 



n8 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(i) On account of the shake in bar 88. For, as we mentioned in an 
earlier sonata,* a shake is so often incidental to the final cadence of the 
second subject, that the appearance of that ornament at a -possible point 
is frequently looked upon as the determining factor in cases which might 
otherwise be doubtful. 

(ii) A comparison between the passage which precedes bar 95, and 
that which follows, shows that bars g6 2 -g^ and gS 2 -gg l are but repeti- 
tions of gi 2 -g2 1 and g4 2 -g$ l . In all four instances, not only the succes- 
sion of the chords, but 'the bass also, is alike, and, in the treble, the only 
difference is in the inverse movement of the individual broken chords. 

It seems to us, therefore, the simpler and more consistent analysis 
to look upon bars 89-102 as forming one passage, consisting entirely of 
cadential repetitions, and that the division in bar 95 is of a somewhat 
arbitrary character. 

(g) The free fantasia is worked on figures drawn from both sub- 
jects, and from the codetta. It commences in the key of C minor with 
the opening motive of the first subject in combination with triplet figures 
taken both from the codetta and the second subject. The first sentence 
comes to a close in the key of G minor, and is then immediately repeated, 
inverted and overlapping, and modulating, ending this time on a half- 
cadence in D minor. 

In the latter key, in bar 125, an interesting passage commences, 
worked on the opening motive of the second subject, accompanied by an 
imitation of the figure which, in the exposition, is not announced until 
the second phrase of this subject. This figure is worked above and below 
the motive, the parts being alternately inverted and re-inverted at each 
succeeding repetition. And, as each of these repetitions occurs respec- 
tively in the keys of D minor, G minor, C major and F major, the whole 
passage forms a modulating sequence. Following on this, the motive is 
taken in both parts together, the bass imitating the treble at a half -bar's 
distance, first at the interval of the fifth below (in the key of B flat major) 
and afterwards, modulating to the key of F major, at the interval of the 
octave. In bar 137, the motive is taken in both parts simultaneously, by 
contrary motion. 

The section ends with a reproduction of the final bars of the 
codetta, taken on the dominant seventh of F major. 

(h) Only the first eight bars of the first subject are heard in the 
recapitulation. 

* No. 8 3 in A minor, second movement (e), page 50. 



SONATA NO. XV. Iig 

(j) The transition, starting with the opening motive of the first sub- 
ject, taken in the bass instead of, as originally, in the treble, reappears 
lengthened by the interpolation of a freely modulating sequential pas- 
sage. This is worked on the second four-quaver figure from the above 
motive. 

The keys passed through during the transition are: F major, D flat 
major, B flat minor, F minor, D flat major, B flat minor, A flat major and 
F minor, in the last of which keys the passage ends on a half -cadence : 

vi,, 6 ,v* 

In bar 160, the four-quaver figure is transferred from the bass to the 
treble where, in 164, it reverts from the second, to the opening four-quaver 
figure of the same motive. From this point to the end of the transition is 
an exact transposition of the corresponding portion of the original pas- 
sage into the key of F minor. 

(k) The second section of the second subject reappears much modi- 
fied and lengthened. The first alteration occurs in bars 200-201, where 
the opening sentence comes to a full close after eight bars. Particular 
attention should be given to the most interesting passage which immedi- 
ately follows. Here, the opening bars of the first subject and of the 
second section of the second subject, are taken simultaneously, the latter 
forming a counter-subject to the former. 

Of the bass-part of this passage Banister remarks that it "makes 
an admirable counter-subject, there is no effort to fit it in, as is so often 
the case in second-rate works : no necessity for explanatory justifica- 
tion." And, of various passages of imitation in the movement, he goes 
on to remark : " In all these cases observe that the imitation overlaps the 
part imitated; which, indeed, is of the very essence of vivid imitation. 
... In these quoted passages, antecedent and consequent are brought 
together contrapuntally, after the manner of a strettoT 

(1) This passage is a transposition of the original codetta into the 
key of the .tonic. 

(m) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) See Sonata I, second movement (a) and (f), page 4. 

(b) More than one view is held with regard to the construction of the 
exposition in this movement. The analysis given in the accompanying 
Thematic Scheme is in accordance with Dr; Hadow's view. Others, how- 

* See footnote * to (c). 



120 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

ever, consider that the first subject ends in bar 14, the transition, in bar 33, 
and that the second subject, consisting of one section only (the passage 
which we have marked as the second section} begins only in bar 33, and 
lasts, until the double bar. 

The view that the first subject ends on the inverted cadence in bar 14, 
seems to us unsatisfactory, as the cadence at that point sounds very in- 
conclusive. It may be added also, that Dr. Hadow looks upon the first 
subject as a ten-bar theme* ending first, on the cadence in the dominant 
key, and then "repeated bar for bar till it comes to the cadence where it 
breaks off into four bars of transitional episode." 

It is interesting to note that, according to either of these two ana- 
lyses, the recapitulation of the first subject ends at exactly the same point, 
viz., at the repetition of the cadence (which here reappears with inversion 
of the parts) to which we referred above as sounding inconclusive. This, 
according to Dr. Hadow's view, is, of course, only a -partial re-entry of 
the subject. Whilst feeling quite clear as to the fact that the first sub- 
ject does not end in bar 14, that being the middle of a sentence, Dr. 
Hadow adds that it is a "disputable point" and he does not think 
" any solution would altogether escape criticism." He continues : " To 
make it the end of a paragraph depends on the belief that the first sub- 
ject must always end on a full close in the tonic, which, with Mozart, is 
not the case," and he quotes the first movement of Sonata XVI, where the 
dominant close, though delayed, is deliberately repeated in the recapitu- 
lation. f 

(c) The short transition is sequential in character. Modulating 
through G minor, it ends on a half -cadence in F major. 

(d) The first section of the second subject is founded on the first 
subject. It starts with the opening motive taken in the bass, accom- 
panied by a new counter-subject in the treble. Note the series of chro- 
matic chords, bars 28-30, viz., F major, I|, 9C (with false notation F# = Gt7) 
resolving enharmonically on to bvii c , followed by Jjiv ^. The last 



chord resolves on to the first inversion of the chord of F major (the tonic 
chord of the passage). 

(e) The second section of this subject consists of a new theme, which 
starts over a tonic pedal. + The sentence is prolonged by cadential repeti- 

* The second phrase of this theme is lengthened from four, to six, bars by the 
free sequential imitation of bars 43-62 ? in bars 6 3 -8 2 . 

t See Sonata XVI, first movement, a and b, page 126. 
I Note that this pedal commences with the last chord of the previous section. 






SONATA NO. XV. 121 

tions in both phrases, and incidentally touches the keys of F minor and 
A flat major. The chords of the Neapolitan sixth, in bar 40, and of 
F major Il'^b, bar 44, should be noted. 

(f) From bar 47 to bar 59, this section is worked on the opening 
motive of the first subject accompanied by passages of semiquaver figures 
founded on those in the second section of the second subject. 

It commences with the motive taken in the bass, in similar manner 
to the opening bars of the second subject. In bar 51, the parts are in- 
verted, and re-inverted and again inverted in bars 55, and 57, respec- 
tively. The passage starts in the key of F major, which, however, is 
immediately quitted, and it modulates through D minor, B flat major, 
G minor, C minor, D minor and G minor, and ends on an inverted cadence 
in A major. The last chord of this cadence is, however, quitted as the 
dominant of D minor, in which key the second portion of the free fan- 
tasia commences.* 

This is a very interesting passage of sequential character worked 
on the opening motive of the second -phrase of the first subject, with free 
imitation between the parts. It starts in D minor and, modulating freely, 
touches the keys of G minor, B flat major (dominant seventh only), 
C minor, E flat major (dominant seventh only), F major (dominant 
seventh only), and G minor, ending on the dominant seventh of B flat 
major, to lead into the recapitulation in that key. 

(g) There are two special features to be noted in bars 82 3 -86, which 
form the last phrase of the curtailed re-entry of the first subject (see b). 

(i) They are an inversion of the original phrase (bars IO 3 -I4 2 ) with 
which they should be compared; and 

(ii) They are another instance in which both subjects are brought 
together in the recapitulation, the accompaniment of triplets of semi- 
quavers (bar 84) being derived from figures in the second section of the 
second subject* 

(h) The opening bars of this subject reappear inverted. 

(j) The short coda consists of a series of cadential repetitions. It 
commences with a three-bar phrase ending on an interrupted cadence. 
The following phrase, which is the final one of the movement, is also a 
three-bar phrase lengthened to five by cadential repetitions. The en- 
hanced effect of the interrupted cadence, bars 116-117, owing to the 
transient modulation to G minor, and the momentary suggestions of the 
keys of E flat major, and C minor (117-118) should be noted. 

* See Sonata III, third movement, footnote, page 20. 

f See the recapitulation of the second subject in the first movement of this 
sonata (k). 



122 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) As in the case of most of the previous Rondos with which we 
have already met in these sonatas, this movement can be viewed from 
the two standpoints mentioned in the earlier Rondos, viz., from that of 
the older, and from that of the newer the Rondo-Sonata, type. And 
even where opinions agree as to the type of form, we find occasional 
differences as to the analysis of certain portions, and details, of the 
movement. 

The view which seems to be the most generally accepted is that the 
movement is in the older Rondo form, and that the principal subject lasts 
for the first fifty bars. According to this view, therefore, the subject is 
in. regular ternary form. Owing probably, however, to its great 
length, and, in the case of its third entry, also to the fact that the fine 
coda is principally founded on it, there is only a partial reappearance 
of the principal subject at each of its subsequent entries (see Thematic 
Scheme). 

A second view, whilst agreeing with the previous one as to the move- 
ment being in the older Rondo form, differs from it as to the length of 
the principal subject, which it considers as ending in bar 12. According 
to this view, bars 13-38, which, in the above analysis, are marked as Part ii 
of the principal subject, form a first episode, and bars 39-50 a complete 
second entry of the principal subject. 

Still another opinion so far agrees with the latter of the above, as 
to consider that the principal subject is only twelve bars long-, and that 
bars 39-50 form a second complete entry of it, but, according to this view, 
the movement is in the Rondo-Sonata form, the first fifty bars forming the 
exposition thus: first subject to bar 12; bridge-passage to 22; second 
subject to 34; bridge-passage to 38; second entry of first subject to 50. 

(b) The opening twelve-bar sentence (analysed on the accompanying 
Thematic Scheme as forming Part i only of the principal subject) divides 
into two six-bar phrases. The first ends with momentary modulation to 
the key of the dominant,* the second with a full close in the tonic. Part ii 
opens in the key of the dominant with a melody founded on that in 
Part i. This section contains four phrases (the fourth being a cadential 
repetition of the third) followed by a codetta of four bars, after which 
a short link leads into the repetition of Part i = Part iii. 

(c) The first episode, though it is not written in what is generally 



* See Sonata III, third movement, footnote * to (k), page 20. 



SONATA NO. XV. 123 

understood by the term binary form, divides into two distinct sections. 
It opens with a vigorous phrase in D minor, which is in great contrast to 
the character of the principal subject. Bars 51-52 are repeated sequenti- 
ally in 53-54. The responsive phrase, however, returns to the more quiet 
figures of the principal subject, on which it is founded. It ends on a 
half-cadence, D minor VI G . 6 V, after which the whole of the preceding 
eight bars are repeated, closing, the second time, on a full cadence in the 
same key. 

It should be noted that the series of turns heard during the final 
cadence, forms a melodic sequence, modulating to B flat major, in which 
key the second portion of the episode commences. 

This section contains another fresh melody which to quote a remark 
of Banister's forms a " quiet appendix " to the episode. It passes inci- 
dentally through the key of G minor, and ends on a half-cadence VI G . 6 V, 
in F minor. A short link follows leading to the second entry of the 
principal subject, of which, as mentioned above, only a portion, i.e., Part i 
is here heard. 

(d) This episode is in a new key and is a perfectly regular example 
of simple ternary form.* 

The first phrase of Part i forms a descending sequence, in which 
the upper parts are written in double counterpoint, and the alto imitates 
the treble at the interval of a fifth below. The responsive phrase modu- 
lates to the relative major, closing on a perfect cadence -in this key. 
Part ii commences with some slight development of the opening motive, 
treated sequentially in the keys of B flat minor and A flat major, after 
v;hich Part i is repeated forming Part iii with the first phrase in- 
verted, and the second modified, so as to end with a full cadence in F 
minor. Note that by the inversion of the above phrase the imitation now 
takes place between the alto and bass, and that the interval between the 
imitating voices is therefore also inverted, and becomes that of a fourth 
above. A short link in the major mode leads to the third entry of the 
principal subject. 

(e) This passage was heard originally near the commencement of 
the movement in the key of the dominant, and it is its recurrence, at this 
particular point in the key of the tonic a feature characteristic of the 
Sonata-Rondo which inclines some theorists to analyse the movement on 
the basis that it is an irregular example of the newer type.t Viewed, how- 



* See Sonata IV, second movement (c), page 24. 

t Irregular, because it contains two episodes in place of one, and also an extra 
entry of the principal subject between the exposition and the recapitulation. 



124 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

ever, from the standpoint of the older Rondo form, with a principal sub- 
ject of fifty bars, the construction of the movement shows itself as quite 
regular. And, moreover, by this means we are enabled far more easily 
to obtain not only a grasp of the movement as a whole, but of the details 
and arrangement of its contents. 

For these reasons, therefore, an analysis of it on these lines appeals 
to us as the better, because assuredly it is the clearer, and simpler of the 
two methods. 

Note the chords of F major II 7C (bar 143), and t>VI G .6(bar 151). 

(f) The Coda commences with a fine passage extending over several 
bars, worked contrapuntally on the opening motive of the principal sub- 
ject. In this passage, the motive, freely imitated^ is taken successively in 
each of the voices. After the repetition of a few bars from the second 
portion of the principal subject (bars 30, etc.), transposed into the key 
of the tonic, the movement closes with yet another recurrence of its 
opening bars, being this time a shortened version, to which a new accom- 
paniment in counterpoint is added. 

Dr. Fisher does not consider the Coda to commence till bar 170. He 
takes the view that the movement is in Sonata-Rondo form, and that the 
passage, bars 136-170,* form a much extended recapitulation of the 
second subject. 



* Owing to the difference of method in his analysis, in numbering the bar con- 
taining the second ending to Episode II, these bars are numbered respectively 137 
and 171. 



SONATA No. XVI, IN C MAJOR (K. 545), (1788). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Allegro 



i 


- p 


y/^- 




., 


1 * 


> 


^Sfo^'^^^rJ-rJ'l 




-f *,' j^u^^-i {__,'_ =ps I--S-I 


In three movements. 


-- -- 




(a) 

(c) 
(d) 

(b) 


# 


FIRST MovEMEf 
EXPOSITION. 


<T " ALI 
Bars. 


-EGRO," IN C M^ 
FREE FANTASIA. 


UOR. SONATA FORM. 
RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


First Subject in Tonic. 

Transition. 
Second Subject in G 
major (Dominant). 
Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 

First Subject. 

No Transition, 1-bar 
Prelude. 
Second Subject. 
Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-4 
5-13 

14-261 

262-28 


(e) Bars 29-41. 


(f) First Subject in F 
major (Subdominant). 
(g) Transition, 
(h) Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
Codetta, 
(j) Double bar and repeat. 


42-45 
46-58 

59-711 
712-73 

42-57 

58 
59-711 
712-73 


ALT 

1-12 

13 

14-261 
262-28 


ERNATIVE SCHE 
Bars 29-41. 


-ME. 

First Subject in F ma- 
j o r (Subdominant), 
modulating to Tonic. 
No Transition, 1-bar 
Prelude. 
Second Subject. 
Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 



SECOND MOVEMENT (a) "ANDANTE," IN G MAJOR, 

(b) EPISODICAL FORM. 



(b) KEY OF THE DOMINANT. 



(c) PART I. 


Bars. 


PART II. 


Bars. 


PART III. 


Bars. 


Part i: 
A. Sixteen-bar Sen- 




(d) Episode. 




(e) Repetition o f 




tence in Tonic 
'(i) 8 bars ending' 




1-16 


Eight-bar Sen- 




first sentence of 
PART I. 


49-641 


o n half-ca- 






tence in G minor 








dence 18. 
(ii) Variation o f 






and B flat major. 
Eight-bar Sen- 


33-40 


(f) Coda. 


64-1-74 


the above 8 






tence in C minor 








bars, ending 






and G minor. 


41-48 






on full ca- 














dence 9-16. J 














Double bar and 












repeat. 












3 or Eight-bar Sen- 












BA2 tence in D 












major (Dom- 












inant). 


17-24 










? Repetition of se- 












cond 8 bars of 












Part i, in Tonic. 


25-32 










Double bar and 












repeat. 













-* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent text. 



126 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT (a) RONDO,* "ALLEGRETTO GRAZIOSO," IN C MAJOR 

( _Bars. 

(b) Principal Subject (first entry) 

Eight-bar sentence in Tonic. 

Double bar and repeat. 

(c) Episode I, in G- major (Dominant) 

Link ... ... ... .. 

Principal Subject (second entry) ... ... 

(d) Episode II, in A minor (Relative minor) 

Link 

Principal Subject (third entry) 

(e) Coda 



To 81 



82-161 
162-201 
202-281 
282-481 
482-51 
522-601 
602-73 



* This Rondo, transposed into the key of F major, has been incorporated as Finale into a two-movement 
sonata in the above key (see Sonata XIX). 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a and b) It is interesting to take notice of the variety of ways in 
which the exposition of this little movement is capable of being analysed. 
We have met with several full analyses of the whole movement. This is 
probably due to the fact that it is so frequently quoted by writers, as an 
example with respect to various points on musical form more frequently, 
it would seem, than either of the other pianoforte sonatas by Mozart. 

The first point on which opinions differ is as to the length of the 
first subject, which is variously considered to be four, eight, and twelve 
bars long. Several writers agree in regarding it as ending in bar 4, and 
several more, as ending in bar 1 2, but so far we have met with one writer 
only who marks the close in bar 8.f 

In the first movement of Sonata I (to which the student should re- 
. fer) we have drawn attention to the fact that there is a difference of 
opinion as to (i) whether the first subject must be at least eight bars in 
length; and (ii) whether, in his movements in sonata form, Mozart invari- 
ably intended that some of the bars should form a separate and distinct 
passage of transition. It should be noted that in Ridley Prentice's 
analysis referred to above (and given in detail in the footnote) we find 
marked both the first subject of eight bars' length, and the separate 
passage of transition. 



t Ridley Prentice analyses the exposition thus : 

Bars 1-8, first subject; bars 8-12, introduction to second subject; bars 13-26, 
second subject in G (dominant); and bars 26-28, coda. He remarks: "The first 
subject contains two distinct four-bar sentences, the latter of which develops into 
the introduction to second subject ; 13 is an extra bar, the second subject containing 
afterwards two two-bar and two four-bar sections." 



SONATA NO. XVI. I2/ 

On the other hand, however, bars 5-g 3 form an unbroken sequence, 
and the impression of " uninterruptedness " produced by the continuation 
of the sequence through bar eight to bar nine is, to us, stronger than any 
cadential feeling produced by the particular form of the progression of 
dominant to tonic harmony, bars 7-8. With reference to the other two 
views, viz., as to whether there is, or is not, a separate passage of transi- 
tion in this movement the first subject accordingly ending either in bar 
four, or bar twelve we can but draw the student's attention to the fact 
that these two differing opinions exist. 

Another interesting point at issue upon which we must touch before 
leaving this portion of the exposition, is as to whether bar thirteen is (a) 
the last bar of the transition; or (b) the initial bar of the second subject; 
or (c) to be considered apart as a bar to itself, forming what Goodrich 
terms, a "prelude of one measure" to the second subject.* 

Probably the last named view is the one most generally held. 

For, of the various writers who consider that there is no specific pas- 
sage of transition in this movement, several, also, do not look upon bar 
thirteen as belonging to the second subject. Banister, for instance, re- 
marks that the first subject ends on the half -close in the tonic, in bar 
twelve, and adds : " Then, however, most dexterously, bar thirteen im- 
plies the dominant to the new key, and the second subject enters at bar 
fourteen'' 

Hadow's remarks on this passage are of special interest, for he is 
describing the methods adopted by the eighteenth century composers it? 
approaching the second subject as compared with the method adopted by 
Beethoven, and then draws attention to this passage as being " a curious 
compromise between the two." The former, he writes, "often bring their 
transitions to a close in the new key and start the second subject on th<? 
same chord on which the episode has just ended. With Beethoven, it is 
the almost universal practice that the transition should end in some key 
other than that of the second subject,t so that the entry of the subject 
gives us all the pleasure of a fresh modulation." Of analyses, in which 
bar thirteen is marked as the initial bar of the second subject, we have so 
far met with three instances, viz., in that by Ridley Prentice, and in 
those to be found in the "Academic Series of Classical Music for the 
Pianoforte" (Messrs. G. A. Holmes and F. J. Karn) and the Cotta edi- 
tion of Mozart's sonatas. 



* "Complete Musical Analysis," by A. J. Goodrich. 

t " Or, at least, on some chord other than the tonic chord of the second sub- 
ject." " Sonata Form," by W. H. Hadow. 



128 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(c) The remark made in an earlier sonata that it is unusual for a 
second subject to consist of one section only, does not, of course, refer to 
movements of a short, simple description such as this. 

Note that bars 18-21 form a descending tonal sequence. 

(d) These bars are usually considered to> form a codetta. However, 
in one analysis of the movement with which we have met, the second sub- 
ject is marked as continuing to the double bar. (See f, in the first 
movement of the previous sonata.) 

(e) The short free fantasia is worked on the figures from the 
codetta, alternating with ascending and descending scale passages 
founded on those heard in the transition. It starts with a repetition of 
the codetta figures, here transposed from G major to G minor and, after 
modulating through the keys of D minor, A minor, C major and again A 
minor, ends on the dominant seventh in F major, the key of the sub- 
dominant, in which very unusual key the recapitulation of the first sub- 
ject takes place. 

(f) The re-introduction of the first subject in the above unusual key 
renders this sonata specially notable, as few examples of the device are 
to be met with. 

The origin of this device is attributed to the desire that the relation- 
ship between the keys of the two subjects in the recapitulation, should 
correspond to the relationship existing between .their original keys in the 
exposition. (In both parts the key of the second subject is a fifth higher 
than that of the first subject.) 

In the " Academic Series of Classical Music,"* it is explained as " a 
survival of an old custom in the earlier sonatas, of transposing both 
subjects as in ancient binary form." 

(g) The transition reappears lengthened, the whole of the first phrase 
being repeated, with the parts inverted, and this time modulating to C 
major (the tonic). 

In the analysis of this movement, as given in (b) on the Thematic Scheme, the 
whole of the above passage (with the exception of the last bar) forms a portion of 
the first subject. According to the latter analysis, therefore, in the recapitulation, 
it is the first subject itself which, half-way through, modulates from the unusual key 
of the subdominant to the usual one of the tonic. 

(h) The second subject reappears in the key of the tonic. 
(j) See Sonata II, first, movement (1), page 9. 

* Referred to in (a and b). 






SONATA NO. XVI. 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 



129 



(a) In Sonata XIV we called attention to the interesting fact that the 
second section of the second subject in the Finale is founded on the same 
motive as is the second section of the second subject in the first move- 
ment. In this sonata we meet with an example of intimate connection, 
this time existing between all three movements, the opening motive in 
each case (and in the first movement, of the second subject as well) being 
founded upon the intervals of a broken chord.* 

Many instances of this method, which thus weaves so close a relation- 
ship between the movements, are to be met with in the works of both 
Haydn and Mozart, and in those of all the great modern composers. 
With the latter the idea has naturally been developed, in some cases tak- 
ing the form of a striking feature or even passage from one movement 
being interwoven with another. In others notably in the works of 
Brahms and Liszt several movements are founded on variations of one 
subject.t Other devices which have the same object in view, viz., that of 
securing basic unity throughout a lengthy composition consisting of 
several movements, or parts, are : 

(i) L'idee fixe, or "representative theme" (of which H. Berlioz was 
the originator), the recurrence of which throughout the work is always 
connected with the same definite idea ; and (ii) Wagner's " leit-motive " or 
"musical visiting cards" as a present-day writer wittily describes them, 
because certain of these "figures" or "themes" always intimate the pre- 
sence or herald the approach of some particular character in the opera. 

(b) Whilst usually analysed as in "episodical form" (as in the ac- 
companying Thematic Scheme) this little movement is occasionally re- 
ferred to as a Rondo. In the " Academical Series of Classical Music for 
the Pianoforte," it is analysed according to the first of the above-men- 
tioned methods, but a note is added to the effect that the three appear- 
ances of the subject create a Rondo in slow tempo. On the other hand, 
however, according to another authority, the movement cannot be con- 
sidered a Rondo because, at the first repetition of the opening theme, 
the second half of it only is repeated. 

The key in which the movement is written, viz., that of the dominant, 
is rather unusual. + The reason for this limitation of key is that, in by 
far the greater number of instances in regularly constructed sonatas in 

* Using the word "motive" in its more extended sense, in which it may con- 
sist of two to four bars. 

f These are termed " transformations " or " metamorphoses " of themes. 

t See, however, the slow movement in Sonata VI, a, and its footnote f (page 
36), and also the slow movement in Sonata XVIII. 

10 



130 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

the major mode, the key of the dominant has already been made very 
prominent in the first movement, as the key of the second subject. 

(c) In Part I of this little movement (bars 1-32), we meet with another 
example, the form of which it is impossible to classify definitely as either 
binary or ternary. 

It is constructed as follows : 

Its Part i is a sixteen-bar sentence in the tonic, the second half of 
which is a varied repetition of the first eight bars, also further modified at 
the close, to end with a perfect, instead of with a half, cadence. A new 
eight-bar theme in the dominant (17-24) follows,* after which, in bars 
25-32, a return is made to the second half of Part i. 

This return is characteristic of binary form, as is also the division of 
the thirty-two bars into two equal portions, each followed by double bars, 
and repeated. Yet, notwithstanding the above, owing to the fact that the 
return (in bar 25), though not to the opening bars of the movement is, in 
fact, a return to a variation of them, the impression conveyed is decidedly 
that of ternary form (i.e., statement, digression and restatement}. 

Percy Goetschius refers to it as being in " incomplete three-part song-form. 1 ' 
He writes: "In the incomplete form the third part is considerably shorter than 
Part I, in consequence of reproducing only a portion, instead of the whole, of the 
latter .... If the first part is a period of parallel construction, Part III may appear 
to be the consequent phrase ; or it may be combined out of the essential members of 
both phrases." See "The Homophonic Forms." 

It is an example somewhat different from that of the Tema and 
Variations forming the first movement of Sonata XI, to b, in which, 
and its footnote, the student should refer (pages 72 and 73). 

(d) This episode contains no new theme, but is founded entirely on 
those in Part I, to the sweet tenderness of which an indescribable pathos 
is added by the modulation from the major, to the minor, mode, in which 
most of this section is written. 

Starting in the tonic minor, the episode modulates, in bar 37, to 
B flat major, and in 41, to C minor, after which a return is made to its 
original key of G minor. 

Note the succession of chords, bar 43, viz., G minor : Jf iv 7 , I c , VI G 6 . 

(e) Only the first sentence of Part I is repeated. 

(f) There is transient modulation to the key of the subdominant, in 
bars 65-66, repeated in 69-70. The second chord, in 70, is taken as an 
inversion of the supertonic minor ninth in this key, but quitted as an 

* This theme is, however, founded on the foregoing one. The sequence in the 
melody, bars 17-20, and in both parts, bars 21-22, should be noted. 






SONATA NO. XVI. 13! 

inversion of the dominant minor ninth in G major. The third chord 
forms that of the diminished seventh on the raised fourth in the latter 
key (= G major, II^ b ), and resolves on to the second inversion of the 
tonic triad (see Sonata VII, slow movement, footnote to coda), page 43. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) This little Rondo is of the older type of form. 

In the article on the "Rondo," in Grove's Dictionary, the distinction 
is drawn between a Rondo and a movement, or piece, in Rondo-form. 
When the principal subject ends with a full close, and is thus definitely 
divided from the following episode, the movement is a Rondo. When, 
however, there is no full cadence at this point, the movement (or piece) 
is not defined as a Rondo, but as being in Rondo-form. 

(b) The principal subject is an eight-bar sentence of very regular 
construction, consisting of two four-bar phrases, each further subdividing 
into two contrasting two-bar sections. The second phrase is a variation 
of the first, modified to close on a full, instead of on a half, cadence. 
The rhythm of the entire movement is, in fact, unusually regular for, 
with the exception of the very last phrase, which is extended to five bars, 
four-bar rhythm continues unbroken throughout. 

(c) The first episode is very short, consisting of one eight-bar sen- 
tence. It is founded on the principal subject, its second phrase starting 
with the opening section of that subject transposed into the key of the 
dominant. The short link starts on the chord of G, which changes, in 
bar 1 8, to the chord of the dominant seventh in C major, and leads to 
the second entry of the principal subject. 

Prout remarks that: " In general, if after one eight-bar sentence ending in the 
tonic (as in this movement) the first modulation, supposing the piece to be in a major 
key, is to the key of the dominant, it is better to regard what follows as belonging 
TO the chief subject rather than as episode, because in the majority of cases the music 
will be more of a continuation than a contrast." And of this movement in particu- 
lar, he also remarks: "Had not Mozart expressly called this movement 'Rondo' 
we should certainly not have so regarded it; for one of the most distinctive features 
of the Rondo form contrast of episode is almost entirely wanting. As it is, we 
are compelled in analysing it as a Rondo to consider the chief subject as ending in 
bar 8 ; otherwise there is only one episode, arid the piece is no longer a Rondo. Had 
not the composer himself so described it, we should have said that the movement 
was in ternary form." 

(d) The second (and longer) episode is also founded on the principal 
subject. It is written in the relative minor key and starts with the open- 
ing section of that subject inverted, and accompanied in the treble by a 
new semiquaver figure. 



132 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

Bars 3<D 2 -32 1 repeat the foregoing section with the parts re-inverted. 
The succeeding phrase ends on a half-cadence, in bar 36, the cadence 
being repeated and prolonged to bar 40, after which the whole of the 
foregoing portion of the episode is repeated in modified form the first 
four bars having the parts inverted. It closes finally on a full cadence 
in A minor. The short link ends on the dominant seventh in C major, 
and leads to the third entry of the principal subject. The following 
chords should be noted : (i) The chord of the Neapolitan sixth in A minor, 
both in bars 33 and 47. In the former case, however, the chord is quitted 
as the first inversion of the chord of the submediant in D minor, through 
which key there is transient modulation ; (ii) The chord of the augmented 
sixth in A minor, in the half -cadence, bars 35-36. 

(e) The coda is founded on a combination of semiquaver figures 
taken from the second link, and the first episode. 

Ridley Prentice considers that bars 6o 2 -68, form a "closing subject," 
the coda commencing with this passage. 



SONATA No. XVII,* IN B FLAT MAJOR (K. 570), (1789). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Allegro 



I 




ii I EEEHEjjE* Ep k i 

-f * r ^^"^- 


-S^= 


p 

/Sue. "^ 


m ^y __!_,_ 1 


J^Z^ 


K*). .IT TY 1 
p- - 


-i 


j^-=^== 


' "T-I ' 1 i 


1 






*/ 


In three movements. 



(a)f FIRST MOVEMENT " ALLEGRO," IN B FLAT MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FREE FANTASIA. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


fb) First Subject in Tonic. 
(c) Passage of Transition, 
(d) Second Subject in F 
major (Dominant), 
(e) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


1-20 
21-40 

41-69 
70-79 


(f) Bars 80-132. 


First Subject in Tonic, 
(g) Passage of Transition. 
Second Subject i n 
Tonic. 
Codetta, 
(h) Double bar and repeat. 


133-152 
153-170 

171-199 
200-209 



1-12 



13-28a3 



SECOND MOVEMENT " ADAGIO," IN E FLAT MAJOR (KEY OP THE SUBDOMINANT). 

OLD RONDO FORM. 

(a) Principal Subject (in Tonic) first entry. Ternary Form 

'Part i, Melody in E flat major 1-4 

Double bar and repeat. 

Part ii, Four bars containing slight digression 5-8 

Part iii, Repetition of Part i 

Double bar and repeat. 
Episode I, in C minor (Relative minor), Ternary Form 

Part i, New melody in C minor, modulating to G minor fol- 
lowed by repetition written out in full ... ... ... 13- 

Double bar. 

Part ii, Modulating, sequential passage leading to 
Part iii, Repetition of Part i, modified so as to close with full 
cadence in C minor ... ... 25- 

Double bar and repeat. 

Link, modulating and leading to 28a 31 

Principal Subject in Tonic (second entry), partial reappearance only ... 3235 

Double bar. 

Episode II. in A flat major (Subdominant), Binary Form 36-47 

'Part i, Melody in A flat major, modulating to E flat major, 1 

followed by 'repetition written out in full ... 

Double bar. f 

Part ii, Melody, modulating back to A flat major 44-47 

Double bar and repeat. ) 



Link, modulating, and leading to 
Principal Subject (in Tonic), third entry, partial reappearance only 



(b) Coda 



48-51 
52-55 
56-63 



has also been arranged as a duet for piano and violin^ though by whom the violin part was 



t Those index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 



text. 



i34 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

THIRD MOVEMENT" ALLEGRETTO," IN B FLAT MAJOR, (a) EPISODICAL 



Part I (or Principal Subject), Ternary Form To 223 

(Part i. Melody in B flat major . ... ... To 83) 

< Part ii. Passage in F major (Dominant) ... 8-4-14 

(.Part iii, Repetition of Part i (exact) ... 15-223; 

Double bar. 

Part II. (b) Episode '... 22-456 

Comprising two distinct sections, each in Ternary Form. 

Section i, in B flat major (Tonic) ... 22-4-4'-> 

Part i 22-4-304 

Melody in B flat major, modulating and ending in F 
major (Dominant). 

Double bar and repeat. 

Part ii 30-4-344 

Passage starting in C minor, and modulating through 
B flat minor to F major (Dominant). 

Part iii 34-4-42 

Repetition of Part i, modified to end in the key of the 
Tonic. 

Double bar and repeat. 

Link _. 42-^-44 

Section ii, in E flat major (key of the Subdominant) 45-56 

fPart i 45-48 ^ 

Melody in E flat major, modulating to B flat major (Dom- 
inant). 

Double bar and repeat. 

Part ii 49-52 

Modulating passage founded on figures from the pre- 
ceding sentence. 

Part iii 53-50 

Repetition of Part i, modified to close in E flat major. 
Double bar and repeat. 

Link 57-62 

Part III 63-703 

Repetition of portion of Part I (eight bars only), 
(c) Coda 70-4-89 



FORM. 
Bars. 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) In direct contrast to what we remarked in connection with the 
previous sonata which, as we mentioned, seems to be by far more fre- 
quently quoted than any of the other sonatas by writers on musical form, 
this one is seldom referred to. 

We call attention to the fact here on account of our consequent in- 
ability to quote varied opinions on any points throughout the work. 

(b) The first subject consists of two sentences, each ending with fulJ 
close in the tonic. The construction of bars 4 3 -i2 1 , should be carefully 



SONATA NO. XVII. 135 

noted. The eight bars contain the responsive phrase of the opening sen- 
tence, and its cadential repetition. Instead, however, of dividing equally 
into a normal four-bar phrase, and its repetition of similar length, the 
phrase is first contracted to three bars, and then, on repetition, is length- 
ened to five bars by slight extensions both at the commencement, and at 
the close. 

(c) The principal portion of the transition is of very melodious char- 
acter. It starts with two introductory bars in G minor, after which a 
melodious four-bar phrase in E flat major enters. This is immediately 
repeated and extended, modulating to F major (the key of the dominant), 
through C minor and B flat major, and again momentarily through 
C major, back to F. The concluding bars of the passage are more char- 
acteristic of the transition of the period. 

(d) It is of interest to note that the opening phrases of this subject 
are formed by a combination of the first motive of the first subject with 
a second motive, which is derived from the second motive of the same 
subject* These, transposed of course, into the key of the second subject, 
are now heard together instead of consecutively. 

Instances in which the second subject is derived from the first sub- 
ject, are to be met with fairly frequently in the compositions of the earlier 
classical composers, the device being a relic of the still older forms from 
v/hich sonata-form was developed. 

Prout remarks : "In modern compositions the second subject is mostly con- 
structed of entirely different thematic material from the first ; at the same time, the 
contrast must not be too violent ; the second subject ought rather to be like a con- 
tinuation of the train of thought of the first. The older composers frequently sought 
to obtain this by founding the first section of the second subject on a portion of the 
first subject presented in a new aspect." 

In this instance, the continuation of the subject (which rather un- 
usually consists of one section only)t is likewise founded on a small 
figure derived from the final notes of the second of the above motives. 

In bars 45-48, the opening phrase of the subject is repeated on the 
chord of the diminished triad. 

Owing to the freshness which the inversion of the parts, together with the new 
figures of accompaniment, gives to the passage (bars 57-69) it is possible that some 
analysers would mark it as forming a separate, and second, section of the subject. 
As, however, it is merely the accompaniment which is new, the passage itself being 
merely a modified, inverted repetition of what immediately precedes it, it seems 
more consistent to look upon both passages as belonging to the same section. 



* See * page 129. 
f See Sonata II, third movement, c, l>age 12. 



136 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(e) The codetta consists of a four-bar phrase, repeated cadentially 
with slight modification and extension. The chord of F major, II [> 9 b , 
bar 74, should be noted. 

(f) The free fantasia opens with an almost literal, though somewhat 
lengthened, transposition of the transitional passage. Commencing in 
the key of D flat major, it modulates through B flat minor, F minor, and 
C minor, to G minor, on a half -cadence in which key the first portion 
of the free fantasia closes. Bar 94 forms the chord of G minor, VI F . 6 . 

The remainder of the section is worked on the opening phrase of 
the second subject first, on the entire phrase, but, after bar 1 16, the bold 
arpeggio figure is dropped, and the remainder of the passage is worked 
on the quaver figure alone. In bars 101-104, the phrase is taken on the 
tonic chord in G major, modulating, in the last bar, to C minor, on the 
dominant seventh in which key the phrase is repeated, in bars 105-108. 
In 1 09- 1 1/ 1 , the foregoing eight bars are repeated with the parts inverted, 
this time, however, on the tonic chord in C minor, and the dominant 
seventh in F minor. Bars 117-122 form a descending sequence, modu- 
lating through E flat major and C minor. In bar 125, the parts are again 
inverted, the music modulating to B flat minor. The ends, after yet 
another re-inversion of the parts, on the dominant seventh in B flat major. 

(g) The transition reappears modified so as to end in the key of the 
tonic. 

(h) See Sonata II, first movement ( 1), page 9. 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) Beyond the various details of construction given in the Thematic 
Scheme, the principal points which the student should note in regard to 
this movement are that : 

(i) The "time" of the movement is really two crotchets to the bar, 
and not four, as is actually written.* The position of the cadences proves 
this; as now written, they invariably fall in the weaker half of the par- 
ticular measures in which they occur, whereas, if the movement is re- 
written with the shorter measures not only will the cadences all fall natur- 
ally and regularly in the more strongly accented of the measures, but, 
in by far the greater number, the cadence-chord will also fall on the 

* It is preferable to regard the time as two crotchets to the bar, because the ac- 
centuation of the greater part of the movement is \ . 



SONATA NO. XVII. i^j 

strong accent.* Moreover, when re-written as above, the sentences 
throughout the movement will prove to be of the normal eight-bar length, 
all regularly dividing into two four-bar phrases. 

(ii) Considering that no portion of either of the two episodes is in 
any way modified on repetition, Mozart has made use of an unusual com- 
bination of methods in indicating these repetitions. For, in both cases, 
that of Part I is written out in full, whereas, in the later portion of each 
episode, he has had recourse to the more usual method, under such cir- 
cumstances, viz., that of enclosing the portion within double dotted bars. 

(b) The coda is founded on the episodes. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) This is the only instance in these sonatas in which Mozart has 
chosen episodical form for the finale. f 

We may here draw attention to the fact that, as in the case of some previous 
movements, this one also is wrongly barred. In this instance, however, correct bar- 
ring is not obtained by halving the measures, but by shifting the bar-lines to a posi- 
tion immediately preceding what is now written as the third crotchet in the bar. 
That this beat should really bear the strong accent, is again proved by the position of 
the cadences throughout the movement. 

(b) In an earlier movement we referred to Banister's definition of art 
episode as being " a movement within a movement." In this instance the 
construction of the episode is interesting, for, as a reference to the 
Thematic Scheme will show, it contains not merely one, but two, complete 
little movements, each of which is in perfectly regular ternary form. Each 
one of them is self-contained, that is to say, it closes with a perfect 
cadence in its own key; and, moreover, each has the two sets of double 
bars with repeat marks one after Part i, and the second at the close of 
Parts ii and iii a characteristic of independent small movements in this 
form, such as we are familiar with in the Minuet. A short link connects 

* Stewart Macpherson explains that by the term "cadence-chord" is always to 
be understood the final chord of a phrase, save in such instances as the following, 
where the two harmonies occurring upon the final bass-note are conveniently re- 
garded as one, and are, as a consequence, to be taken as together representing the 
cadence-chord : 

(a) A half-cadence ending with a 2 followed by a 3 on the dominant bass. 

(b) A perfect cadence, with a retardation of dominant harmony over the tonic 
bass. 

(c) A half-cadence in which accented passing-notes (or appoggiaturas) delay the 
appearance of the final dominant harmony. ("Form in Music.") 

f See, however, Prout's remark quoted in the third movement of the previous 
sonata, c, page 131. 



138 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

the two, and a second Jink at the end of the episode leads into a repeti- 
tion of a portion of the principal subject which forms Part III of the 
movement. Details to be noted in the episode are that : 
(i) The opening bars are written on a tonic pedal ; 

(ii) Bars 27-28, in the keys of G minor and F major respectively, are 
of sequential character; 

(iii) Bars 31-32, in C minor, modulating to B flat minor, are founded 
on the principal motive in the preceding melody, and form a short 
sequence ; 

(iv) The link, starting in bar 42, is founded on a little figure from 
the principal subject (bars 4-5) ; 

(v) Part ii of the second little movement opens in the bass with the 
repeated note figure with which its Part i commenced in the treble, but 
taken by inverse movement; and bars 51-52 are an inversion of 47-48, the 
intervals in the treble of 51, being also taken by inverse movement; 

(vi) The opening bars of the second link are founded on the chro- 
matic scale-passage, first heard in bar 47. The passage is first taken in 
the bass, and then, with the parts inverted, it is imitated a seventh higher 
in the treble. The closing bars are a repetition of a passage from Part ii 
of the principal subject (bars 12-14). 

(c) The Coda is founded on passages from both sections of the 
episode. Bars 74' 4 -78, are repeated in 78 4 -82, with the parts inverted and 
varied. 



SONATA No. XVIII, IN D MAJOR (K. 576), (1789). 
THEMATIC SCHEME. 



I 



All gro 



-#4-6: I = =-d"TH : ~' ' ^ g "g^F^F * ^^q^rj^-rT"*"' 

-9- -9- ESS 







In three movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT "ALLEGRO," IN D MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 



I Bars. 



(a)* First Subject in Tonic, 
(b) Transition. 

Second Subject in A 
major (Dominant). 
(cHj 1. 27-2-412.) 

(d) ( 2. 41-2-531. J 

(e) Codetta. 

Double bar and repeat. 



To 161 
16-2-272 



27-2-531 
53-1-58 



FREE FANTASIA. 



(f) Bars 59-98. 



RECAPITULATION. 



(g) First Subject in Tonic. 

(h) Transition, modified 
and lengthened. 

(j) Second Subject (in 
Tonic), second reap- 
pears first. 
J 2. 121-2-1372.) 
\ 1. 137-2-1551. J 

(k) Codetta. 



Bars. 



98-2-1062 
106-2-1212 

121-2-1551 
155-1-160 



SECOND MOVEMENT" ADAGIO," IN (a) A MAJOR (!VEY OP THE DOMINANT). 
(b) EPISODICAL FORM. 



(c) Part I (or Principal Subject) in Tonic ... 

( A. Melody in A major, closing on full cadence 1-8 ) 

J B. New four-bar phrase, with transient modulation to E 

major (Dominant) ... 9-12 |" 

I Return to one of the phrases in first melody ... ... 13-16 2 J 

Link of three notes A sharp, B, B sharp 

(d) Emsode in F sharp minor (Relative minor), Ternary Form ... 

Parti ... . ... ... ... 17-261 1 

Melody in F sharp minor and D major 

Part ii ... 26-1-31 

Passage, modulating, and ending on half-cadence in F sharp 
minor, leading to ... 

Part iii 32-411 

Repetition of Part i, modified to close on full cadence in F 
sharp minor. 
Link, leading to 
Pnrt III 

Repetition of Part i (exact). 

(e) Coda 



Bars. 



1-162 



16 
17-4H 



41-1-43 
44-591 

59-2-67 



* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 
text. 

t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



140 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



THIRD MOVEMENT " ALLEGRETTO," IN D MAJOR, (a) IRREGULAR SONATA- 



*EXPOSITION. 


Bars. 


FORM. 
FREE FANTASIA. 


Bars. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Bars. 


(b) First Subject in 
Tonic, 
(c) Transition. 
Second Subject 
in A major (Dom- 
inant), 
(d) [ 1. 26-441. 1 
(e) \ 2. 44-1-501. \ 
if) { 3. 502-581. J 
(g) Codetta. 


1-161 
16-2-25 

26-581 
582-64 


(a) First Subject 
(second entry). 

(h) Section of De- 
velopment. 


65-801 
80-2-116 


Second Subject in 
Tonic. 
( 1. 117-1351. } 
{ 2. 135-1-14H. } 
If 3. 1412-1491.1 
(j) Connecting pas- 
sage founded on 
the original Co- 
detta leading to 
(j) Coda. 


117-1491 
1492-162 
163-189 



* The Exposition in this movement is perfectly regular whether the movement be regarded as in Sonata, 
or in Sonata-Rondo, form. In the former case, the Exposition ends with the passage (g) in bar 64 ; in the 
latter case, in bar 80, after the succeeding entry of the Principal subject. 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) The first subject consists of an eight-bar sentence ending with 
full close in the tonic, the sentence being then repeated varied. It is 
divided into two four-bar phrases, each of which as clearly subdivides 
into two two-bar sections. The second phrase starts in sequence to the 
first on the chord of E minor, to which key there is transient modulation. 

The sub-division of these phrases into sections is distinctly denned though there 
is neither a rest nor a cadence of any description, in either bar 2, or bar 6, to mark 
such division. In his work, "Form in Music," Stewart Macpherson, quoting 
this passage, remarks " nevertheless, the ear most certainly responds to the idea of a 
definite division after the third A in bar 2, and after the third B in bar 6. The 
reason for this lies probably in the antithetical character of the music of the two 
sections in each case, and to some extent at least in the sudden change from a bare 
passage in octaves to one in fuller harmony." 

(b) The transition is worked on semiquaver figures derived from the 
first subject. The greater portion of the passage is in the key of the 
tonic, but it modulates to that of the dominant, in bar 25. A comparison 
of the opening portion of the exposition with the corresponding portion 
of the recapitulation shows that the phrase (starting in bar 8), which com- 
mences the repetition of the first subject, forms, in the recapitulation, the 
first phrase of the transition. 

(c) The first section of the second subject is founded on the first 
subject, commencing with a reproduction of the opening motive of the 
latter, transposed into the key of the dominant. t The entirely new con- 



t See Sonata XVII, first movement ( d), page 135. 



SONATA NO. XVIII. l ^i 

ditions, however, under which the motive is now reproduced, renders the 
passage very fresh and interesting-. It is written with close canonic imi- 
tation, 2 in i, between the parts,* the lower part imitating the upper in 
the octave below, at only one quaver's distance. Dr. Fisher does not look 
upon this passage as a part of the second subject. He considers that 
the latter does not commence until the last quaver in bar 41, the point at 
which according to a more generally accepted view the second sec- 
tion of this subject commences. The reason^ he gives for his opinion is 
that the passage does not reappear in the corresponding place and key in 
the recapitulation. On the other hand, however, a careful study of the 
foregoing pianoforte sonatas shows that, though there is a certain same- 
ness in general outline throughout these works, the wealth and variety 
cf detail are very great, and, moreover, that Mozart often made use of 
methods which, at the time, were exceptional both as regards arrange- 
ment and treatment of matter, and choice of key.f 

In connection with this it will be of interest to quote some very pertinent re- 
marks of Dr. Hadow's. In writing of the great classical composers, he observes : 
"It is worth remembering that these men did not follow rules, but made them, and 
often experimented as they went along. Haydn and Mozart are feeling their way 
through a form which they inherited from C. P. E. Bach and handed on to Beethoven, 
and in analysing them one must be guided by their spirit and especially by their 
sense of proportion." 

We have already drawn attention, earlier in this work, to the various 
innovations to be met with in Mozart's Rondo movements. And although 
exceptional features occur far less frequently in his movements in 
sonata-form, still instances are not wanting to show that, even in these, 
Mozart occasionally allowed himself to depart from his usual methods, 
even more especially as regards the question of key, than that of struc- 
ture. Below, we give a few examples which refer only to variety of 
treatment occurring in Mozart's recapitulations : 

See (i) the first movement in Sonata IX, where the recapitulation 
of the second subject is exceptionally taken before that of the first sub- 
ject. And for unusual choice of key : 

(i) The first movement of Sonata VII, in C major, where, in the 

* I.e., a canon (or canonic passage), in which, as in this instance, two voices 
take part in the imitation of cne melody. Such canons, however, often have an 
accompaniment of one, or more, other voices, which are freely written, and do not 
take part in the imitation. 

f In two instances, also in his pianoforte sonatas, viz., in No. IV and No. XI, 
Mozart allowed himself the freedom to choose an unusual " form " for the first move- 
ment. See Sonata IV, first movement, (a), page 22. 



142 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

recapitulation, the first subject is reproduced with an interlude in the tonic 
minor, the repetition of the opening sentence (bars 8-14) reappearing in 
this key. 

(ii) The first movement of Sonata X, in C major, where, in the recap- 
itulation, the practically literal reproduction of the exposition is con- 
tinued further than is usual, the first phrase of the second subject recur- 
ring in the key of the dominant ', as at its first hearing, the music only 
reverting to the key of the tonic in the final bar of this phrase. 

(iii) The third movement of Sonata XII, in F major, where, in the 
recapitulation, the first section of the second subject reappears in the key 
of the tonic minor. 

(iv) The first movement of Sonata XVI, in C major, where, in the 
recapitulation, the first subject is taken in the key of the sub dominant. 

Bearing in mind, therefore, . the various unusual examples men- 
tioned above, together with the special features of the particular passage, 
bars 27" 2 -4i 2 , now under discussion (which we will tabulate below) we 
prefer the analysis given in the accompanying Thematic Scheme to that 
furnished by Dr. Fisher. 

These features are that : 

(i) The passage does reappear in the recapitulation, though after, 
instead of before, the repetition of the greater part of the passage, bars 
4 I " 2 ~53 1 > which, in the exposition, it immediately precedes. 

(ii) Though the key in which the recapitulation of the passage com- 
mences is very unusual, and does not correspond to the key in which the 
passage starts in the exposition, this non-parallelism of keys only lasts 
during the first two-bar phrase. After this, the remainder of the section 
appears in the strictly parallel keys of E minor and D major (the tonic); 
the keys of the corresponding portion of the original passage being B 
minor and A major (the dominant). And, moreover, 

(iii) The passage in question concludes with the recapitulation of 
bars 50-5J 1 , which Dr. Fisher agrees in marking as the final bars in the 
exposition of the second subject. In fact, to state it still more clearly, 
these bars are here absolutely incorporated into this passage, of which 
they now form the final phrase.* 

* It should be here noted that, in the later part of the movement, the positions 
of the two sections are reversed. The second section all but its -final phrase, i.e., 
bars 50-531, the phrase now being discussed is recapitulated first . Then follows the 
first , after which the final phrase of the second section, which was previously 
omitted, brings the subject to a conclusion, thus retaining the original position it 
held in the exposition. 



SONATA NO. XVIII. ! 43 

As an interesting commentary on the above discussion, we give below the ana- 
the latter portion of the exposition, as furnished bj Percy Goetschius. 
.bor he not only considers that the second subject commences with the passage in 
question, but that this passage is the second subject. He marks the sentence 7bar s 
41-2-53) which is more generally considered the second section of the subject, as 
Codetta I, and the concluding bars of the exposition as Codetta II. 

(d) As was the invariable rule when the first section of the second 
subject was founded on the first subject, the second section is quite new.* 

t consists of a melody of twelve bars, containing three phrases of un- 
equal length, viz., of four, five, and three bars respectively. The second 
phrase is a modified repetition of the first. 

(e) The short codetta is founded on previous figures. 

(f) This section is worked chiefly on figures from the first subject 
and the last two bars of the codetta. It is notable for the different inter- 
esting passages of canonical imitation, variations of the passage with 
which the second subject opens. In bars 63-6; 1 , the bass imitates the 
treble at the octave below, at the distance of a whole bar, whilst, from 
70-/3 1 , the treble imitates the bass at the octave above, at a half-bar's 
distance. Again, the various instances of inversion of parts, and the 
double dominant pedal which, starting in bar 92, accompanies the suc- 
ceeding chromatically ascending passage, should be noted. 

The Free Fantasia starts in the key of A minor, and passes through 
B flat major, G minor, A minor, B minor, F sharp major and minor, 
B minor, E minor, and A major, to D major. It closes with a link of 
descending semiquaver figures which leads to the recapitulation of the 
first subject. 

(g) Only the first eight bars of the first subject are heard here. 

(h) With the exception of the last four bars, the second transition is 
entirely new. The passage opens as if it were going to be a continuation 
of the first subject, but it alters at the close of bar 108, where the bass 
starts imitating the treble at a twelfth below, and at a whole bar's dis- 
tance (see b). Bars iog" 2 -ii2 are an inversion of bars io6' 2 -ic>9, the inver- 
sion overlapping the original passage. 

The last figure in the inverted passage is curtailed, and, in this form, 
becomes the starting-point of the succeeding passage. In this, the cur- 
tailed figure is imitated and repeated for several bars, the figures over- 
lapping each other at every entry, and the whole passage rising sequenti- 
ally, and modulating from G major, through A minor, and B minor, to 
the key of D major (the tonic). 



* A few isolated instances to the contrary are to be met with. 



144 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(j) The recapitulation of the second section of the second subject 
appears exceptionally before that of the first section, and is modified and 
lengthened. 

It should be noted that although the second section now contains 
four, instead of only three phrases as before, its original -final phrase is 
omitted here, and is not heard until after the completion of the recapitula- 
tion of the first section which follows.* The lengthening above men- 
tioned is produced (i) by a new responsive phrase ending with a perfect 
cadence in the tonic, which thus transforms the original twelve-bar sen- 
tence into one of eight bars, (ii) This is followed by a modified repeti- 
tion of the first two phrases of the original sentence, here ending on a 
half-cadence in B minor. This leads directly into the recapitulation of 
the first section of the subject, which commences in the latter key. 

Beyond this unusual modification of key for its first two-bar phrase, 
this section is reproduced almost literally in the keys of E minor and 
D major, which correspond to those in which it was originally heard in 
the exposition (see page 142 (c), sub-section ii). At its close, however, 
the sudden introduction of an inversion of the chord of the supertonic 
minor ninth, which replaces the original perfect cadence, leads to the 
repetition of the final three-bar phrase of the subject, transposed into the 
key of the tonic. The latter phrase, as above mentioned, was omitted 
in the recapitulation of the second section. 

(k) The codetta, slightly modified, reappears in the key of the tonic. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) This is the third instance in his pianoforte sonatas, in which 
Mozart has chosen the somewhat unusual key of the dominant as the key 
for the slow movement. See also Sonatas VI and XVI, and refer to the 
second movement a, and its footnote in the former (page 36), and to 
b, paragraph ii, in the second movement of the latter (page 129). 

(b) Percy Goetschius describes the structure of this movement as being 
in "first Rondo-form." t See also, the second movement, the Rondo Pol- 
onaise, in the Thematic Scheme of Sonata VI (page 33). 

(c) In analysing the construction of this portion of the movement in 
the Thematic Scheme, we have not classified it there as being in either 
binary or ternary form, we have merely marked the final phrase as return- 
ing to one of the phrases of Part i, without specifying which. 

* See page 142, footnote * to (c). 
t "Lessons in Music Form," by P. Goetschius. 



SONATA NO. XVIII. 



145 



Our reason for this omission is, that the design of these first sixteen 
bars is a little indefinite ; for, whilst the impression conveyed by the music 
is decidedly one of ternary design* (viz., of statement, digression and re- 
statement), the returns bars 13-16, is actually more akin to the responsive, 
than to the first, phrase of the opening melody a characteristic feature 
of the binary form. 

The design of this passage falls therefore under the category of 
those hybrid forms, to which we have already called particular attention 
more than once in these sonatas. See particularly the finale of Sonata 
VI and the first movement of Sonata XL That the final of the four 
phrases, as in the case of the Air and Variations in Sonata XI, is to such 
a great extent a reproduction of the responsive phrase of Part i is doubt- 
less due to the twofold fact that : 

(i) The two phrases of Part i commence alike; and 

(ii) It is necessary to bring this, the final phrase of the whole subject 

in similar manner to the final phrase of Part i to a conclusion with * 

perfect, instead of with a half, cadence. 

(d) Part i of the episode consists of a sentence of two phrases of four 
and six bars' length respectively. 

The first phrase ends on a half -cadence in F sharp minor, formed 
of the chord of the augmented sixth resolving on to dominant harmony. 
The second phrase, commencing like the first, modulates in the second bar 
to D major, in which key it ends on a full close, twice cadentially re- 
peated. 

Of the few bars constituting Part ii, the first four form a modulating 
sequence. Starting in D major, this passage passes incidentally througn 
E minor to F sharp minor, in which key the section closes on a half- 
cadence, bars 30-31, followed by a link leading to Part iii (i.e., of the 
episode). This is a repetition of Part i, with modification of the second 
phrase to close in the original key of F sharp minor. A link of three 
bars founded on the previous scale passages, and modulating through 
D minor to A major, leads to the return of the principal subject. 

(e) The coda is founded on the episode with, however, reminiscences 
of the principal subject in the demisemiquaver figures, bars 6I 1 and 64* 
and at the final cadence. 



* Percy Goetschius specifically writes of this passage as being in "III part 
song-form." " Lessons in Music Form," by Percy Goetschius 

II 



146 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 
THIRD MOVEMENT. 



(a) In this movement we meet with yet another of those interesting 
examples of "mixed" forms which, on account of certain exceptional 
features they contain, can be viewed as being written in one or the other 
of two different forms. And, in accordance with our practice on previous 
similar occasions in this work, we will consider this movement from each 
of the two standpoints in turn, and thus realise more clearly what, respec- 
tively, are the exceptional features from either point of view. 

The body of opinion, in so far as we have been able to obtain it, 
seems to incline to the view that the movement is an example of irregular 
sonata-form. Both Hadow and Percy Goetschius regard it as such ; and 
Banister, whilst analysing it as a Rondo, remarks of the episodical por- 
tion which follows the first recurrence of the subject as "being, however, 
somewhat of the nature of development, passing through several keys." 
He continues : " Such a movement as this may almost be said to be like 
a first movement, with the repetition of the subject interpolated between 
the first and second parts." 

The exceptional feature in this movement is that the three passages 
mentioned below all occur in their particular juxtaposition in one and th*. 
same movement. 

These passages are : 

(i) The second entry of the first subject, at bar 65, before the free 
fantasia. 

(ii) The free fantasia; and 

(iii) The recapitulation of the second subject immediately after the 
free fantasia. 

For (a) whilst the free fantasia is characteristic of sonata-form, and 
the repetition of the second subject in the above particular position 
i.e., immediately after the free fantasia is also occasionally to be met 
with, the second entry of the first subject before the free fantasia is very 
exceptional. And 

(b) On the other hand, whilst the last-named feature i.e., the second 
entry of the first subject at the end of the exposition is an essential char- 
acteristic of Sonata-Rondo form, it is unusual, in this form, for the epi- 
sode which customarily follows, to be replaced, as here, by a middle 
section worked entirely on previous material ; and the recapitulation of 
the second subject before that of the principal subject is exceptional. In 
order to obtain a still clearer conception of the construction and contents 
of the movement, we will, for a moment, look upon it from one further 



SONATA NO. XVIII. 



147 



standpoint, viz., as based upon the older, and less highly developed, 
Rondo form. In this case, not only will those passages which form the 
characteristic features of Rondo form and sonata form severally, immedi- 
ately become apparent, but also those passages which, in each case, are 
exceptional, thus : 



*f Principal Subject (first entry) 
* First Episode 



t (a) Connecting_passage = Transition 



16-2-25' 
26-581 



j f (b) Melody in Dominant 

j (Repeated in the latter part of the move* 
(, inent in the key of the Tonic.) J 

Link 

* Principal Subject (second entry) 

Second Episode (so called), often known as the long episode ... 
(This is not an episode,* but a section of Development.-^) 

( t First portion developed entirely from previ- ~) 

ous material 80-2116' 

j t Repetition of melody (b) from first episode, C 

(. transposed into the key of the Tonic 1171/101 ? 

First Link, extended 

* Principal Subject (third entry) 

Short Coda 



117-1491 ; 



Bars. 

1-161 
16-2-581 



582-64 

65-801 

80-2-1491 



1492-162 
163-1781 
178-189 



Characteristics of Rondo-Form 
marked *. 



(i) The three entries of the principal 
subject with intervening matter. 



(ii) The second episode (so-called) is by 
far the longer of the two. 



Characteristics of Sonata-Form 
marked t- 

The points more especially to be noted 

are that: 

(i) The melody (b) which appears first in 
the key of the dominant reappears to- 
wards the end of the movement, trans- 
posed into the key of the tonic. Its 
nature is thereby transformed from 
that of an episode into that of a second 
subject. 

(ii) Bars 80-116 contain nothing new, 
but are developed entirely from previ- 
ously heard material. They therefore 
form a section of development, or free 
fantasia, and not an episode.]; 



I At the same time, we would here call the student's attention to the facts that : 

(i) A theme which is to be repeated, i.e., a subject is, as a rule, a theme of 
more importance than one which only occurs once. 

(ii) In the episodical portions of Rondos by composers of the Haydn-Mozart 
period, we frequently meet with references to the principal subject and, in the later 
episodes, with repetition and development of material which has already been heard 
in the earlier emsodes. 



148 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



When viewed as in sonata-form, a fresh and interesting aspect of 
the movement reveals itself, relating to the history and evolution of this 
form. For, thus regarded, it is the first example in Mozart's pianoforte 
sonatas of a sonata-allegro movement in which the ex-position .is not 
-repeated. 

Again, as in the first movement, it will be of interest to quote 
Hadow's remarks relative to this movement, in which he points out that 
this omission is due to the unusual opening of the free fantasia to which 
we have above referred, viz., its commencement with a second entry of the 
first subject. 

He is writing on the subject of the gradual decline of the custom 
of repeating the exposition ; he remarks : 

* From the beginning it appears to have been not an essential point of structure, 
but a concession to the weakness of the audience ; and so as musical education 
advanced composers came to see that it was only necessary where the exposition was 
unusually difficult or elaborate, and that in other cases their subjects might claim 
to be recognised after a single presentation. Now, among the great masters of the 
sonata, whenever the repetition is omitted, it will be found that the free fantasia 
falls into one of three classes (to the first of which the present example belongs), 
viz. : 

(a) It opens with a repetition of the first subject, with or without thematic 
variation, but in either case clearly recognisable .... Then having, so to speak, 
given us a partial repeat, it goes on to develop the separate phrases of the expose 
tion in any manner which the composer chooses to adopt, f 

Prout also analyses this movement very fully in his volume, "Ap- 
plied Forms." He refers to it as "a not unusual compromise between 
the sonata and rondo forms," but considers that whilst partaking of 
the characteristics of both, it has more of the rondo than of the sonata. 
He analyses the first part of the movement i.e., up to the end of the 
second entry of the principal subject as an exposition in regular rondo- 
sonata form, after which he continues : 

' ' But, from this point, it more resembles a sonata movement. It contains nothing 
that can be called episode ; all that follows, down to the recapitulation, is thematic 
development. We know already that cases of this kind are not uncommon in the 
modern rondo form ; but the peculiarity here is, that the first subject does not appear 
at all at the beginning of the recapitulation perhaps because it has been almost 
continuously present in the developments. The recapitulation commences with the 
second subject, and the first is not heard again till the coda. It would be possible to 
regard this as one of those cases in which the second subject precedes the first in the 
recapitulation ; but this assumption will not make the form a regular sonata form, as 
we still have the additional entry of the first subject at the end of the exposition." 

* " Sonata Form," by W. H. Hadow. 

f Elsewhere, Hadow refers to movements in which this exceptional treatment 
of the free fantasia occurs, as being written in an "experimental type of ternary 
form occasionally used by Mozart." 



SONATA NO. XVIII. 



149 



An altogether different analysis from either of the above is given by 
Dr. Fisher. His view is that the movement contains no middle section- 
he therefore regards it as being written in modified sonata-form, and 
analyses it as follows : 



Exposition, 

First subject to 
Bridge-passage to 
Second subject to 
Codetta to 
Bridge-passage to 



Bar. 

16 
25 

50 
581 
64 



Eecapitulation. 

First subject to 
Bridge-passage to 
Second subject to 
Coda to 



Bar. 

80 
116 
141 
189 



(b) The first subject lasts for sixteen bars, and is in four-bar rhythm. 
The close of the second phrase is interesting, and should be specially 
noted, as it implies a passing modulation to, and perfect cadence in, the 
key of the dominant. The chord of the seventh is, however, incomplete, 
the raised third, the distinctive note of the new key, being omitted. Bars 
9-12 are a repetition of the first phrase, to which, however, a new accom- 
paniment of semiquaver figures is added, which forms a counter-subject 
in the bass (compare with the passage, bars 99, etc.) In the final phrase 
the semiquaver figures are transferred to the treble. The melodic 
sequence in bars 1-4, and again between bars 5 and 6, should be noted. 

(c) The transition commences on a. short tonic pedal. It is a very 
simple passage, entirely in the key of the tonic, in which it ends on a 
half -cadence. 

(d) The first section of the second subject is founded on the opening 
motive of the first subject. It commences, in bar 26, with the motive 
taken in the bass, accompanied in the treble by a new counter-subject. 
Bars 28-29, modulating to B minor, repeat bars 26-27 sequentially, after 
which there is a slight development of foregoing figures until the half- 
cadence in A major (the augmented sixth resolving on to the dominant 
chord) in bars 33-34, is reached. In the latter bar, and overlapping the 
foregoing phrase, an interesting passage commences. It is written over a 
pedal, with the motive transferred to the treble, and imitated by inverse 
movement in the tenor. The sequence (bars 34-38), in which the two 
parts are consequently moving in contrary motion to each other, should 
be noted. The pedal ends in bar 40, the section, however, continuing 
with an arpeggio and broken chord passage as far as the inverted cadence, 
bar 44 1 . 

(e) This passage contains nothing very definitely new. It rather 
gives the impression of being a development of the latter bars of the 
previous section. It is quite possible, therefore, that some theorists would 



150 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

not consider it as forming a separate section to itself. Prout, however, 
marks it as such, and the syncopated melody, combined with the modu- 
lating sequence, bars 46-48, though evidently founded on the descending 
passage in bars 42-43, gives to it great freshness, and forms its distinctive 
feature. 

(f) This section, also, is founded on a descending scale passage. The 
second phrase is a variation of the first, closing on a full, instead of on 
a half, cadence.* 

(g) This passage on a pedal modulates back to the key of the tonic, 
and leads to the second entry of the first subject. 

N.B. The exposition m this movement is perfectly regular, whether 
the movement be regarded as in sonata, or in sonata-rondo form. In the 
former case, the exposition ends with the passage (g) in bar 64 ; in the 
latter case, in bar 80, after the succeeding entry of the first subject. 

(h) As above mentioned, in a, this portion of the movement does 
not form an episode, but is developed entirely from material already 
heard in the exposition. The latter part of it, commencing in bar 95, is 
the more important. 

The section opens with a lengthened version of the transition, com- 
mencing in its original key, modulating, however, to the tonic minor, and 
thence to F major and A minor, Note that 85 4 -86 3 is in sequence with 
84 4 -85 3 . Commencing in bar 88, a new modulating sequence, with the 
semiquaver figures transferred to the bass, is interpolated, before the 
passage is brought to a conclusion with a repetition of the final bars of 
the original transition. These are transposed into F major, in which key 
the second portion of the free fantasia commences in the following bar. 
The sequence (88-90) is founded on the one occurring in the second section 
of the second subject (46-48), and passes through the keys of A major, 
G major, F major, and D minor to G minor. It should be noted that in 
each of the above changes of key, whether to the major, or to the minor, 
mode, the modulation is effected through an inversion of the<chord of the 
dominant minor ninth. The second portion of the section is based on 
the opening motive of the movement. It starts with the first bars of the 
second subject (26-29) with the parts inverted, and continues with the 
second part of the first subject, similarly treated, the latter modulating 
from G minor to A minor. In bars 103-107, the above motive is worked 
with imitation between the treble and bass at the fifth below, the entries 

* Dr. Fisher marks this passage as codetta, and the following one as a bridge- 
passage leading to the recapitulation (see (a) supra). 



SONATA NO. XVIII. 151 

in both voices, always overlapping the imitated part.* The whole pas- 
sage forms a rising sequence. In 107, the figure of imitation is modified, 
the latter portion of it being omitted, and replaced in the following bars 
by a return to the bold arpeggio figure of accompaniment. The section 
closes with an exact reproduction of the final bars of the original tran- 
sition which leads to the recapitulation of the second subject, transposed 
almost literally into the key of the tonic (II7-I4Q 1 ). 

(j) As we have previously had occasion to remark in this work, the 
real coda in sonata movements commences, strictly speaking, at the point 
at which the recapitulation of the exposition ceases, t Under certain con- 
ditions, however, the coda is often considered to commence with the im- 
mediately preceding repetition of the original codetta. And though, in 
this movement, the special conditions referred to in the earlier movement 
are not present, and the real coda (or, at least, its most prominent and im- 
portant portion) commences in bar 163, with the third entry of the first sub- 
ject, we still find evidence that a difference of opinion exists as to which 
is the exact starting point of this passage. Granted for a moment that 
the above entry of the first, or principal subject ( 163-1 78 1 ) is the third 
entry of a Rondo, the short passage which follows this entry would, of 
course, form the entire coda. But there are at least three different points 
at one or other of which the commencement of this passage is marked by 
those, who look upon the movement as being written in sonata form. 

These are : 

TABLE XIII. 



(i) 



In bar 163, with the third entry of the first subject ; 

or 



(a) in bar 149, with the entrv of the preceding lengthened recapitulation of 
the original codetta. This ends on a dominant pedal. 



or 



(b) in bar 141, where the recapitulation of the passage commences which, in 
the exposition, Dr. Fisher considers as forming the codetta. 



Before proceeding further, it will be interesting, ^ as well as instruc- 
tive, to compare the close of this movement (i.e., from bar 141 to the end) 



* Banister remarks of such overlapping " that it is of the very essence of vivid 
imitation." 

f See Sonata X, first movement (k), page 65. 



152 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



with the corresponding portion of the finale in Beethoven's Sonata in 
D minor, Op. 31, No. 2 (i.e., from bar 295 to the end). In the latter, the 
commencement of the coda is variously marked as taking place (a) *'n 
bar 295 ; (b) in bar 311; and (c) in bar 350. We shall find from this com- 
parison that the construction of the closing portion of each of the two 
movements is somewhat analogous, and that in each case the principles 
underlying the differences of opinion as to the point at which the coda 
commences, are the same. In the excerpt from Beethoven's finale the 
points of construction to be noted are that : 

TABLE XIV. 



(i) 



It commences with the recapitulation of the concluding section of the 
second subject, after which a repetition of the short original codetta fol- 
lows, both, of course, transposed into the key of the tonic ; 



this repetition of the codetta leads into a recapitulation of the opening bars 
of the free fantasia in exactly similar manner to that in which the flrst 
codetta leads into the original free fantasia; 



the recapitulation of the free fantasia the latter portion on a dominant 
pedal leads into the re-entry of the first subject (in har 350) where the 
latter appears varied and emphasised by the addition of an inverted pedal. 



According to the view of the authority from whose analysis of the 
Beethoven finale we quote, the coda to the above movement commences 
with the re-entry of the first subject, in bar 350. 

And this emphatic re-entry is so important, so manifestly the pith of 
the coda, that, to our mind, the above analysis is by far the most satis 
factory of the three methods to which we are here referring. 

On the other hand, however, Dr. Harding and Dr. Fisher concur in 
marking the coda as commencing with the recapitulation of the codetta 
in all movements in which such recapitulation occurs, though, with regard 
to this particular example of Beethoven's, their views differ as to which 
is the starting point of the original codetta.* They respectively mark it 
in bars 68 and 79, and consequently the final coda is marked as com- 
mencing in bars 295, and 311, respectively. 



* Dr. Harding, in fact, never makes use of the term codetta. He calls all such 
passages coda, whether they occur at the end of the exposition, or at the close of the 
entire movement. " Analysis of Form," as displayed in Beethoven's pianoforte son- 
atas, by H. A. Harding. 



SONATA NO. XVIII. 153 

If we now examine the construction of the concluding portion ot 
Mozart's finale we shall find that, like in the above example of Beet- 
hoven's, it commences with the recapitulation of the final section of the 
second subject, followed by a literal reproduction of the opening bars 
of the original codetta, transposed into the key of the tonic. At this 
point, however, the continuation of the passage so far differs from the 
example of Beethoven's, in that the repetition of the codetta, instead oj 
leading into a recapitulation of the opening bars of the free fantasia, 
prior to the return of the first subject, is itself developed and extended. 
and leads direct into the re-entry of this subject.* 

For similar reasons, therefore, to those which incline us to agree with 
the analysis of the Beethoven finale first given above, so, in the case of 
the Mozart finale, do we prefer the first method of analysis shown in 
Table XIII, this being in accordance with a strictly parallel view, which 
considers the coda to commence with the re-entry of the first subject. 

In ii (b) in the same Table we have given Dr. Fisher's view as to the 
point at which the coda commences, the difference between the two ana- 
lyses (ii a and ii b) corresponding, of course, to a similar difference of view 
as to the starting point of the original codetta 



* That this passage is simply a lengthened version of the original codetta is 
proved by a comparison of the opening, and of the final, bars of the two passages. 



(a), SONATA No. XIX, IN F MAJOR (K. Appendix III, No. 135). 

THEMATIC SCHEME. 

Allegro 







7n 100 movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT "ALLEGRO," IN F MAJOR. SONATA FORM. 



EXPOSITION. 



(b) First Subject in Tonic. 

(c) Bridge-p assage or 
Transition. 

{Alternative Analy-) 
sis. 
First Subject 1- V 
241. 
Transition 24-1-31 J 
Second Subject in C 
major (Dominant). 
f 1.32-45. ^ 

2. 46-541. 
3. 542-641. I 

4. (or Codetta) 
64-2-78. J 

Double bar and repeat. 



(e) 
(f) 
(g) 



Bars. 



1-161 
16-2-31 



32-78 



FREE FANTASIA. 



(h) Episode. 

Bars 79-941. 



Section of De- 
velopment. 

Bars 94-2-118. 



(J) 



RECAPITULATION. 

First Subject in Tonic. 
Bridge-p assage or 
Transition. 

{Alternative Analy-~\ 
sis. ( 

First Subject 119- C 
1421. ) 

Transition. 142-1-149 
Second Subject in F 
major (Tonic). 
'1. 150-163. 

2. 164-1721. 

3. 1722-1821. 

4. (or Codetta) 

182-2-196. 
Double bar and repeat. 



Bars. 



119-1341 
134-2-149 



150-196 



(a) SECOND MOVEMENT" ALLEGRETTO," IN F MAJOR. OLD RONDO FORM. 

__Bars. 
Principal Subject (first entry) 

Eight-bar sentence in Tonic. ... 
Episode I, in C major (Dominant) 

Link 

Principal Subject (second entry) 

Episode II, in D minor (Relative minor) 
Link 



Principal Subject (third entry) 
Coda 



To 81 
82-161 
162-201 
202-281 
282-481 
482-51 
522-601 
602-75 



text. 



These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 



t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject 



SONATA NO, XIX. 155 

FIRST MOVEMENT. 

(a) Neither this sonata nor the following one in B flat major is in- 
cluded in the chronological portion of Kochel's Catalogue, but they are 
both placed in the third appendix.* The reason for this is that neither 
of the two sonatas is original in the form her-j presented. In the case of 
No. 20, in fact, the opening Allegro and the Menuetto were not written by 
Mozart, and the remaining two movements, like the two contained in thi.s 
sonata, are not only arrangements of previously written movements, but 
they are severally taken from different sources. 

The opening Allegro of this sonata, for instance, is an arrangement 
of a movement from a sonata for piano and violin (Kochel No. 547), 
whilst the Rondo is also an arrangement or, more strictly speaking, it is 
virtually a transposition of the finale of the easy Sonata in C major, 
for pianoforte alone, No. 16, in this volume (Kochel No. 545). Both the 
original works are dated June 26, 1788, but when, and by whom, these 
adaptations were made is unknown. Hadow does not think that this 
work was written as a sonata at all. He remarks : "The last movement 
is only a variant of the Finale in C (written in 1788), and may have been 
tacked on by a pupil or conceivably by Mozart himself to a first move- 
ment which he had written and abandoned." 

Of the two adapted movements in Sonata XX, the Andante is an 
arrangement of an Andante from a Pianoforte Concerto in B flat major 
(Kochel No. 450), composed in March, 1784, whilst the Rondo is con- 
structed from three different Rondos from as many pianoforte concertos 
in this key (Kochel Nos. 450, 456 and 595). 

Hadow points out that this sonata is a " Pasticcio," a species of work 
which, at one time, was a good deal in vogue, and to which some of the 
greatest composers of the period openly contributed. The scope of the 
work to which the word was applied was gradually extended, but it ori- 
ginally signified : " A species of lyric drama composed of airs, duets, 
a'nd other movements, selected from different operas and grouped 
together, not in accordance with their original intention, but in such a 
manner as to provide a mixed audience with the greatest possible number 
of favourite airs in succession. It is not at all necessary that the move- 
ments contained in a Pasticcio should all be by the same composer. As 
a general rule they are not; and no attempt is made to ensure uniformity, 
or even consistency, of style."! Further on, the article continues : 

* This contains "Die Ubertragene Kompositionen " = arrangements. 
f From the article on the " Pasticcio," by W. S. Rockstro, in Grove's " Dictionary." 

1 



156 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

" It is true that during the greater part of the eighteenth century, when 
the Pasticcio enjoyed its highest degree of popularity, some of the greatest 
masters then living patronised it openly, and apparently without any 
feeling of reluctance; but it never inspired any real respect, even in its 
brightest days, and the best examples were invariably short-lived, and 
incapable of resuscitation." 

The authorship of this sonata is variously ascribed. Kochel thinks 
that Herr Gustav Nottebohm has good grounds for attributing the ar- 
rangement to Herr A. E. Muller, for, in one of the early editions printed 
by Peters in Leipzig, it appears as " Senate pour le Clavecin ou Piano 
Forte comp. par A. E. Muller. GEuvre XXVI." 

A note, however, added to the above is to the effect that the sonata, 
which was first printed by the firm of Thonus under Mozart's name, was 
afterwards brought out by another firm at Vienna and Mayence as a post- 
humous work of the same composer's. 

(b) Although opinions differ as to whether the first subject in this 
movement ends in bar 16, or in bar 24 in other words, as to whether the 
eight-bar passage, i6' 2 -24 1 , on dominant pedal, is the final portion of this 
subject, or the commencement of the transition the general opinion 
seems to be that the subject ends in bar 16. Hadow remarks: "No doubt 
the next eight bats could be analysed as a codetta, but they feel more 
to me like the beginning of the transition. It is one of those ' frontier * 
problems which are common in sonata-form." 

Another authority writes with regard to this same question : " It is 
neither easy to say where the first subject ends nor to give conclusive 
reasons. At bar 16 we get the very definite cadence in the tonic and a 
fitting finish to a definite short theme of easily remembered and strongly 
marked rhythmic character such as we associate with a first subject. I like 
to analyse my first subject as one definite idea, and for this reason I 
should end it at bar 16. Bars 16-24 are in tonic key and end with a per- 
fect cadence, and are recapitulated intact, so I cannot quarrel with those 
who choose to include it in Subject I, but I prefer to consider it as a tune 
belonging to the bridge, which would thus have one section in tonic and 
another modulating." 

Bars 1-16 form a sentence in four-bar rhythm of very usual construc- 
tion, the third phrase being a repetition of the first, and the fourth phrase 
a repetition of the second, modified to close with a full, instead of with 
a half, cadence in the tonic. 

The passage (bars 16-23) would be generally recognised and described, as being 
written over a dominant pedal. As, however, the only chords which accompany it 
are those of the tonic and dominant, to both of which the bass-note C belongs, the 



SONATA NO. XIX. 157 

passage, according to Prout, cannot correctly be so designated. He defines a pedal 
as a note sustained by one part (generally, though not invariably, the bass) 
through a succession of harmonies of some of which it does, and of others it does 
not, form a part." Some authorities, however, do not make this restriction. 

(c) Bars 24-31 are characteristic of the transition of the period. 
The first three bars form a descending tonal sequence, after whicti 

the semiquaver figures are transferred to the bass and the passage ends 
on a half-cadence in the tonic, i.e., on the chord of C major (the dom- 
inant). In the following bar, this chord is repeated as tonic of the new 
key in which the second subject enters. 

(d) The first section of the second subject opens with a four-bar 
phrase modulating to D minor. The second phrase, commencing one 
degree lower, is in sequence with it, and modulates back to C major. 
Ears 40-41 are repeated varied in 42-43, and are followed by a further 
two bars which end on a half -cadence in the dominant.* 

(e) The second section consists of one sentence ending with full close 
in the dominant. Its second phrase is an inversion of the first, the two 
phrases overlapping in bar 50. 

It should be noted that the only chords which accompany the sus- 
tained dominant in the treble of the first phrase are the tonic and dom- 
inant of its own key, to both of which it belongs.! 

(f ) This section consists of two five-bar phrases, of which the second 
is a repetition of the first, with the opening bars inverted, and the remain- 
ing bars repeated an octave lower. 

According to one authority, these two sections (i.e., from bar 46 to 64) 
are marked as forming one section only, and the following section (the 
fourth) is marked codetta. 

(g) The fourth section is a very important one, as the greater part 
of the free fantasia is founded on it. It consists of an eight-bar sen- 
tence prolonged by cadential repetitions to fourteen bars. Momentary 
suggestions of its subdominant key such as we meet with here are often 
incidental to the last section of the second subject. Percy Goetschius 
refers to the cadence, bars 67-68, as a "concealed" cadence. 

(h) The second part of this movement opens with a short episode in 
the key of the dominant. Mozart seems to have been very fond of in- 
cluding such episodes in his sonata-movements, for we have already met 
with several instances of them in these sonatas. J 



* See Sonata III, third movement, footnote to (k), page 20. 

f See supra b, last paragraph. 

I See Sonata V, first movement (f), paragraph ii ; No. VI, first movement, No. 
VIII, second movement, No. X last movement ; and No. XII, first movement, etc. 



158 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

This one lasts for sixteen bars, and, like the first subject, is in four- 
bar rhythm, with parallel first and third, and second and fourth, phrases. 
In this instance, however, besides the necessary modification at the final 
cadence, the second half of the sentence has a florid variation in the 
accompaniment. The episode closes in 94, and in the same bar the real 
section of development commences. 

This is worked entirely on the fourth section of the second subject, 
and modulates through C minor and G minor to D minor, in which key 
a dominant pedal starts, which continues to bar 109. During the last 
bar of the pedal the music modulates and a return is made to F major (on 
the dominant seventh, in which key the section closes) through F minor, 
the tonic minor. Note that bar 103 forms the chord of the augmented 
sixth in D minor; bar no, the chord of F minor, vii 7b ; and that both in 
bars 112 and 113 we find two instances of the last inversion of the dom- 
inant eleventh in the latter key, in its derivative form, ii 7 d. 

(j) See Sonata II, first movement (1), page 9. 

SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) As this movement has already been fully analysed in its original 
form as the finale of Sonata XVI, no further remarks are needful beyond 
the details of construction and key given in the Thematic Scheme. 



(a),* SONATA No. XX, IN B FLAT MAJOR (K. Appendix III, No. 136). 

THEMATIC SCHEME. 



Allegro moderato 

^p=5=^E 







In four movements. 



FIRST MOVEMENT "ALI 
EXPOSITION. 


,EGRO M 
Bars. 


ODERATO," IN B 
FREE FANTASIA. 


FLAT MAJOR. SONATA 
RECAPITULATION. 


FORM. 
Bars. 


(b) First Subject in Tonic. 
(c) Transition. 
Second Subject in F 
major (Dominant). 
(d)f/ 1. 32-3-42L \ 
(e) \ 2. 42-2-531. J 
(f) Codetta. 
Double bar and repeat. 


To 81 
8-3-32 

32-3-531 
53-1-57 


(g) Bars 58-843. 


First Subject in Tonic, 
(h) Transition. 
Second Subject ^ in B 
flat major (Tonic). 
f 1. 107-3-1171. 1 
X 2. 117-2-1281. J 
Codetta. 


84-3-921 
92-3-1073 

107-3-1281 
128-1-132 



(a) SECOND MOVEMENT " ANDANTE," IN E FLAT MAJOR (KEY OF THE SUBDOMINANT). 
TEMA WITH THREE VARIATIONS. 



(b) TEMA AND EACH OP THE VARIATIONS. BINARY 


FORM. 


TEMA 


(c) 
VAR. I. 


(d) 
VAR. II. 


(e) 
VAR. Ill 


Part I. 
Eight-bar sentence in E flat major (Tonic) 
flat major (Dominant) . . . 


and B 


Bars. 

18 


Bars. 

17-24 


Bars. 

3340 


Bars. 

49-56 


Double bar and repeat. 
Part II. 
Eight-bar sentence in Tonic 
Double bar and repeat. 
Excepting in Variation III, where Part II 
longed to 11 bars, and is not repeated. 


is pro- 


9-16 

.";-*' 


25-32 


41-48 


57-67 



THIRD MOVEMENT (a 
PART I. 


) MENU] 
Bars. 


STTO AND TRIO. MINU 
PART II. 


ET AND 
Bars. 


TRIO FORM. 
PART III. 


(b) MENUETTO IN B FLAT 




(b) TRIO IN E FLAT MAJOR 






MAJOR (Tonic). 




(Subdominant). 






TERNARY FORM. 




TERNARY FORM. 






(c) Part i : 




(f) Part i: 






Eight-bar Sentence in 




Eight-bar Sentence in 




Menuetto 


Tonic. 


To 8 


E flat major. 


To 8 


Da Capo 


Double bar and repeat. 




Double bar and repeat. 






(d) Part ii : 




Part ii: 






Modulating passage 
ending on Dominant 




Modulating passage 
ending on perfect ca- 






pedal. 


83-251 


dence in B flat major. 


83-161 




(e) Part iii : 




Part iii: 






Repetition of Part i, 




Repetition of Part i. 


16-1-24 




lengthened to ten bars. 


253-35 








Double bar and repeat. 




Double bar and repeat. 







* These index-letters bear reference to paragraphs correspondingly marked, which occur in the subsequent 
text. 

t The symbol is here employed to denote a section of a subject. 



i6o 



MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 



FOURTH MOVEMENT" RONDO ALLEGRO," IN B FLAT MAJOR, (a) OLDER RONDO 

FORM. 

Bars. 



(b) Principal Subject in Tonic (first entry) 1401 

Episode I 40-1-89 

( (c) (i) Transitional passage, leading to 40-1-641 ^ 

} (d) (ii) New melody in F major (Dominant) 64-2-8Q1 f 

j (111) Transitional passage, modulating back to B flat ( 

major, and leading to 80-2-89 ) 

Principal Subject in Ionic (second entry), partial appearance only ... 90-3051 

Link in E flat major leading to ' 105-2110* 

Episode II in E flat major '.'.[ 1102184 

'(e) (i) New melody in E flat major (Subdominant) merging 
into a long transitional passage written over a 
chromatically moving bass, and accompanied for a 
few bars by an inverted pedal. It ends on the 
chord of the Dominant seventh in B major, and 
leads to : 1102-137 

(f) (ii) A partial re-entry of the Principal Subject in B 

major. This merges into a modulating sequential 
passage founded on the opening figures of the sub- 
ject, and leads to: 138-161 

(g) (iii) A partial re-entry of the Principal Subject in G 

major. This also merges into a modulating pas- 
sage ending on the Dominant seventh of B flat 
major, and leads to 163-184 

Principal Subject in Tonic (third entry) ' 185222 

Complete but for the last two' bar's. 

(h) Short Coda ... 222-2-235 



FIRST MOVEMENT. 



(a) See Sonata XIX, first movement (a), page 155. 

(b) The first subject is an eight-bar sentence in the tonic. Its fore- 
phrase ends on a half -cadence, the responsive phrase, which is an inverted 
repetition of the first, is also modified, to close with a full cadence. 

The momentary suggestion of the subdominant key in the first and 
fifth bars should be noted. 

(c) The transition in this movement is unusually long, and consists 
of two portions, the first ending on a half -cadence in the tonic, bar 16, 
and the second on a half -cadence in the dominant, bar 32. A comparison 
with the later portion of the movement shows that it undoubtedly com- 
mences in bar 8, for the corresponding passage in the recapitulation is 
clearly the commencement of the second transition. 

In Hadow's words, "the 'surprise' is that after the transition has 



SONATA NO. XX. l6l 

got to the dominant chord an episode* founded on the first subject is 
interpolated, which prolongs the transition rather more than usual." 

The transition is founded on the first subject^ partly on the opening 
two-bar motive in its entirety,! and partly on two figures derived from it. 
The smaller of these is derived from the initial six-note figure, and the 
second seems probably traceable to a combination of this with the two- 
quaver figure at the close of the above-mentioned motive. 

Banister refers to the first eight-bar passage of the transition the 
greater part of which forms a sequence in the melody as being " formed 
from the first five notes of the subject." Another authority, however, is 
of opinion that a broader outlook should be taken in considering the 
passage. He regards it as being worked on the entire subject, and points 
out the intimate connection between the opening and closing figures, 
bars 8' 3 -io 2 , and the two intermediate prominent notes (D and E flat), (the 
" pattern " of its first sequence) with the corresponding figures, and notes, 
of the opening bars of the movement. 

The second portion of the transition opens with the two-bar motive 
itself, taken first in the key of the tonic, and immediately afterwards 
repeated in G minor (the relative), the four bars thus forming a modu- 
lating sequence. The passage then reverts to the smaller figures men- 
boned above, on which the remainder of the transition is worked. It 
passes from G minor to F major (the dominant), in which key, except for 
two momentary modulations, [(i) to B flat major, 24-25, and (ii) to 
G minor, 28-29], it remains. 

(d) The second subject opens with a motive founded on the principal 
motive of the first subject,! the figure of semiquavers with which it com- 
mences being, in fact, an exact reproduction in the key of the dominant 
of the opening figure of the movement. The first phrase is of the usual 
four bars' length and ends on a half-cadence. The responsive phrase, 
which is lengthened to six bars, commences by repeating the opening bars 
of the fore-phrase in the key of G minor. In bar 40 it modulates back to 
F major, and closes with a perfect cadence in this key. The chord of 
the Italian sixth in bar 40 should be noted. 

(e) The second section of the second subject starts with a new figure, 
which is answered in the bass by a figure in contrary motion. The first 
two bars are repeated an octave lower, and are followed by a sequential 



* This episode is omitted in the second transition which, after the opening bars, 
is altogether different from the original passage. 

f See *, page 129. 

I Banister remarks that this subject resembles the first subject more than is 
usual. 

12 



162 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

passage over a bass ascending by step, the ascent from bar 46'* to 4.8 1 
being chromatic. The section ends with a full close, accompanied by a 
shake, which is so often a feature at the final cadence of the second 
subject* 

(f) The codetta consists of cadential repetitions, founded on the 
opening six-note figure. 

(g) After the one opening bar, which is a repetition of the last bar 
of the codetta taken on the chord of the dominant in G minor (relative 
to the original key), the whole of this section is worked on the principal 
motivef of the first subject, the greater part being accompanied by florid 
semiquaver passages in double counterpoint. This motive, prolonged to 
a three-bar phrase, is first taken in the bass in the above key, and then 
with the parts inverted and with one slight modification, is taken in the 
treble in C minor.* At its close there is transient modulation to F major. 
In bar 66 the parts are re-inverted, and the three-bar phrase occurs in the 
key of B flat major. A modulating sequence follows, founded on the 
first whole bar of the above motive, with the parts once again inverted. 
This passes through the keys of A flat major, B flat major, and C minor, 
after which, now shortened to two notes and modified in interval, the 
sequence continues, modulating through G minor and F major to D minor 
(relative to the dominant). In this key reappears the opening six-note 
figure, to which especial attention was drawn in c. It is worked first 
over a dominant pedal (bars 77-80) and then (in 81-82) on the chord of 
the diminished seventh and its enharmonic resolution the chord of 
B flat minor. In 83, the chord of the diminished seventh is again heard, 
but this time enharmonically altered to one on the raised fourth in B flat. 
It now resolves on to the second inversion of the tonic chord in this key, 
but in the major mode, and thus leads to the recapitulation, which com- 
mences in the same bar. 

(h) Only the first few bars of this passage are like the original tran- 
sition, the greater portion of it being entirely new. In bars 96-98 the music 



* See Sonata XV, first movement (f), pages 117, 118. 

f That is, the two-bar motive. 

I The student must not infer that the E natural in bar 63 necessarily denotes 
that the passage is in the major mode. It is, in fact, in the minor mode, the E 
natural being an accidentally raised, lower auxiliary note to the folloAving F. 
Another way of explaining the key, according to some theorists, is to consider that 
there is transient modulation to F minor at this point. "When, however, a com- 
parison is made between this passage and the original one in G minor (bars 60, etc.) 
the latter explanation does not appear satisfactory. 

It is worth noting that the three notes (F, E, E flat) in bar 66, form an aug- 
mentation of a figure from the second bar of the movement. 



SONATA NO. XX. 163 

modulates to E flat major, passing transiently, in 98-99, through C to the 
key of B flat minor (tonic minor). The greater part of bar 100 is formed 
of the chord of the Neapolitan sixth in this key, with suspension of the 
sixth on the first beat. Transient modulation through the key of F major 
follows, the latter chord being quitted, in 101, as the dominant in B flat 
minor. The passage concludes with several bars over a dominant bass, 
towards the end of which the mode changes to the major, thus leading 
to the return of the second subject in the key of the tonic. 



SECOND MOVEMENT. 

(a) This movement is an arrangement of an Andante from a Piano 
forte Concerto in B flat major (K. 450) written in 1784. 

(b) The following are the points to be noted : 

(i) The Tema and the variations (with the exception of a slight 
extension at the end of the third) are all constructed exactly alike, each 
of the two Parts consisting of an eight-bar sentence, which divides into 
two four-bar phrases. 

(ii) With but a few very slight alterations, the succession of har- 
monies (even to their positions) over which the variations are written, is, 
in each case, an exact repetition of that found in the original Tema. 

(iii) Also, with but few exceptions throughout the movement, both in 
Parts I and II the dominant chord is prolonged over the tonic bass in the 
perfect cadences, thus in each case producing suspension of the tonic 
chord. 

In the final cadence of Part I, the chord of B flat major is, of course, 
converted into the tonic of the new key into which the music has for the 
moment modulated, the music, however, modulating back, in the next' 
bar, to E flat major, the key in which the movement is written. 

(iv) The chromatic concord, II b , in bar 3. This does not recur in 
the corresponding position in either of the variations, but, in bar 26, it 
replaces the chromatic supertonic discord #iv, which occurs in Part II 



of the Tema (bar 10).* 

It should be noted that, in the first instance, the chromatic chord 
resolves on to the second inversion of the tonic triad, and, in the second, 
en to the last inversion of the dominant seventh. 

* In the last variation the music has a passing modulation at this point to the 
key of F minor. 



164 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

(v) The chord of B flat major, II 7b ,. and the following passing sug- 
gestion of the key of G minor, which occurs in approaching the perfect 
cadence in B flat at the end of Part I in the Tema and in each of the 
variations. 

(vi) The interrupted cadence (bars 63-64), which forms an effective 
medium through which to introduce the additional bars at the end of 
the final sentence of the movement, thus making a welcome variation to 
the previously unbroken series of eight-bar sentences. 

(vii) The chord, E flat major, #iv% 7 , the first inversion of the chord 
of the supertonic minor ninth, which precedes the final perfect cadence. 

(c) In the first variation the melody appears with semiquaver move- 
ment in the treble. 

(d) Syncopation is the feature of the second variation. 

(ej The third variation is characterised by its demisemiquaver 
figures. 

THIRD MOVEMENT. 

(a) This is the second of the two movements in this sonata which in 
no way owes its origin to Mozart (see Sonata XIX, first movement, a) 
In fact, this composer only wrote a Minuet and Trio to two of his piano- 
forte sonatas, viz., to No. IV, in E flat major, and to No. XI, in A major. 

(b) The Menuetto, as is most usual, is written in the same key as the 
opening movement, and the Trio is written in a related key. This is 
especially the case when, as in this instance, the sonata contains four move- 
ments, of which the Minuet and Trio form the third. 

(c) Part i consists of an eight-bar sentence in four-bar rhythm. The 
responsive phrase, which, like the first, is in B flat major, modulates 
sequentially through G minor (the relative). 

Bar 6 3 forms the chord of B flat major, Jfivb 7 . 

(d) Part ii opens with two bars in G minor repeated sequentially in 
F major. In bars I3-I4 1 there is transient modulation to C major, ap- 
proached through the chord of the dominant minor ninth, two inversions 
of which chord are heard in bar 13 Transient modulation through 
D minor to F major follows, the first sentence closing with a full cadence 
in the latter key, bar 16. The remainder of the section is written over a 
pedal, which, starting as a tonic, soon changes (in bar 18) into a dominant, 
pedal. The opening bars of this passage are sequential. 

(e) The second phrase of Part iii commences in the key of E flat 
major. Its opening figure in the treble is an imitation of the first bass 
figure of the corresponding phrase in Part i, after which the phrase is 
modified and lengthened by cadential repetitions to six bars. 



SONATA NO. XX. ^5 

(f) The Trio consists almost entirely of repetitions of its own open- 
ing phrase presented with various slight modifications. As the fore- 
phrase of Part i, it occurs over a tonic pedal ending with the dominant 
as the final note in the treble. When repeated as the after-phrase, the 
pedal is discontinued and it ends on a full cadence with the tonic as the 
final note of the melody. Again, as the first phrase in Part 11, it appears 
inverted and modified and with a new accompaniment of quaver figures 
added in the treble. Here it starts in the key of C minor, and passing 
transiently through F major, modulates to the key of B flat major. In 
Part iii, the whole of Part i is repeated without any modification, unless 
we take into account the few notes in bar 16 which form a link, or " musi- 
cal prefix," to the sentence. 

The second phrase in Part ii starts with a passing modulation into 
E flat major. Bar 14 forms the chord of B flat major, II 7b . 

FOURTH MOVEMENT. 

(a) This movement is an example of the older type of Rondo-form. 
For, though a second melody in the key of the dominant, following after 
a long transitional passage, occurs at the point at which a second subject 
would be looked for, still, as this melody does not recur towards the end 
of the movement, it does not constitute a subject. 

The first part of this movement, however (i.e., to bar IO5 1 ) would 
form a perfectly regular exposition of a Sonata-Rondo, and, on this 
account, although there is no recapitulation of the second melody, the 
movement certainly contains some features of sonata-form. This view 
is also the one taken by Banister. 

(b) The principal subject is in ternary form. Part i is a sixteen-bar 
sentence in four-bar rhythm. The second phrase ends on a half-cadence, 
after which bars 9-16 form a slightly florid repetition of bars 1-8, modi- 
fied also to close on a full, instead of on a half, cadence in the tonic. 

Part ii is written entirely on a pedal. There is transient modulation 
to the key of F major at the close of each of the two phrases, the second 
of which is lengthened from four, to six bars by cadential repetitions. 
In the last two bars of Part ii, which form a link, the pedal is inverted. 

Part iii is a shortened version of P.art i consisting of an eight-bar 
sentence, lengthened to twelve bars, by cadential repetition of the second 
phrase. 

Bar 38 forms the chord of B flat major, T ?b ; it resolves on to a deriva- 
tive of a dominant discord: ii ?b , (V n d ). 

(c) This passage commences with a twice repeated full cadence in 



1 66 MOZART'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS. 

the tonic. In bars 44' 1 -46 1 the treble of bars 42' 1 ~44 1 is transferred to the 
bass transposed into the key of G minor (the relative). In bars 45-47, 
and overlapping this entry, these figures are imitated in the treble and 
followed by a florid passage, which modulates through C major to 
F major, and then in the form of an ascending sequence continues over 
the chords of G minor, A minor, B flat major and C major. The passage 
ends on a dominant pedal* in the key of F, during which there is a recur- 
rence of the repeated note figure with which it opens in bar 40. 

(d) This is the melody which, did it recur later in the movement in 
the key of the tonic, would form a second subject. It consists of an 
eight-bar sentence, which is repeated. On repetition the first half of each 
of the phrases is inverted, and the whole sentence is also otherwise modi- 
fied. 

(e) The following points should be noted in this section : 

(i) The second phrase commences with a tonal sequence, the B natural 
and A natural (the first notes of bars 115 and irrespectively) being 
merely accented lower auxiliary notes, accidentally raised to a semitone 
below the following notes of resolution. 

(ii) The third phrase which commences after the half -cadence in 
bar 1 1 8, is an inversion of the opening phrase, the position being reversed 
as regards the voice at each entry of the figure. 

(iii) In bar 122, the music modulates to A flat major, thence to F 
minor, E flat major, and in 131, to B flat. Here an inverted pedal com- 
mences, which starts as the dominant in B flat and lasts for three and 
a. half bars, the bass meanwhile continuing the chromatic progression, 
which commenced in bar 130 and is maintained till bar 136. 

(iv) The progression from 134 to 135 is enharmonic (B natural : 
C flat), the first chord in the latter bar forming the second inversion of 
the dominant seventh in G flat. This is followed by the chord of the 
French sixth on A double-flat, which, however, in the next bar resolves 
enharmonically on to the chord of V 1 ! in the key of B major. In this 
remote key a partial re-entry of the principal subject occurs. 

(v) As is frequently the case, when one of the higher discords is em- 
ployed and resolves as here on its own root, the eleventh resolves first 
and leaves the root position of the dominant seventh. 



* See Sonata XIX, first movement, last paragraph to ( b), page 156. 

The student should note that the B natural and D in the treble of bars 57 and 
59 are changing notes, and do not alter the harmony which, at the moment they 
occur, is each time that of F minor (dominant minor). 



SONATA NO. XX. 1 67 

(f) Only ten bars of the principal subject appear in this key, for in 
148 it merges into a connecting passage which modulates and leads into 
another partial re-entry of the subject in G major. In the above-men- 
tioned bar the music modulates to C sharp minor, and the opening motive 
of the subject commences on the last inversion of the chord of the dimin- 
ished seventh in this key, ending in 149 on the chord of the dominant 
seventh. In the following bar the parts are inverted, and a sequence 
founded on the same motive commences in the bass, modulating in 1 54 to 
the key of E major. An interesting little sequence accompanied by sus- 
pensions commences on the last quaver in bar 155 and continues till I58 1 , 
in which the treble and bass move in contrary motion to each other. This 
modulates from E major through C sharp minor to A minor, the passage 
continuing, though not sequentially, to bar 161, and passing into G major, 
in which key it ends on the dominant seventh. Bar I58 2 forms a deriva- 
tive of the dominant eleventh in G minor, ii 7d , and that at 1 5Q 2 is another 
inversion of the same chord, ii 7C . 

(g) As in the above entry in B major, so also here the first ten bars 
only of the principal subject are repeated, after which it merges into a 
connecting passage, modulating through A minor to B flat major (the 
tonic) and leads to the final entry of the principal subject the third in 
this key.* 

Like the previous passage commencing in bar 148, this one also IP 
founded on the opening motive of the principal subject. In bars 178-180 
the bass descends chromatically through the last inversion of the dom- 
inant minor ninth in B flat, and the passage ends in bar 184 on the second 
inversion of the dominant seventh in this key. 

(h) The coda commences in the key of E flat major (the subdom- 
inant) with two bars founded on the link, which leads from Part 11 to 
Part iii of the principal subject, and is then developed from the new 
little stepwise figure introduced into these first two bars. An inverted 
pedal is sustained throughout nearly the whole passage. Through the 
chord of the Italian sixth in B flat (bar 226) the music modulates to th? 
tonic minor, and in bars 227-228 we meet with the following succession 
of chords : 

B minor, i c , tfiv 7 , i, Vla.e- Note that in these bars the second 
inversion is employed each time as a passing . Bars 229-230 are a 
varied repetition of 227-228, the return to the major mode not being 
reached till bar 231. The second inversion in this bar (repeated in 233) 
is, of course, employed cadentially. 

* This is, of course, accounted the third entry of the Rondo. 
PMNTED BI THE NEW TEMPIE PBESS, NOBBTOY CRESCENT, LOXDON, S.W. 16. 



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